In the past 11 years, the Nanjing Anti-domestic Violence Asylum Center has accommodated a total of 2 people; Beijing Shunyi has only accepted 2 asylum assistance cases in three years; Shanghai’s two shelters have served a total of 19 people in 7 years...
As an important part of anti-domestic violence assistance, shelters can give women victims of violence a temporary shelter, allowing them to temporarily escape the violent environment, preventing psychological "paralysis" and avoiding "learned helplessness."
However, since the establishment of my country’s first women’s refuge in 1995, it has become a common phenomenon that there are many sites, low awareness rates, and few shelters.
A 2016 survey report in Shanghai showed that only 13.7% of people said they had heard of shelters.
The shelters that were controversial about their preservation and abolition have been specified in the "Anti-Domestic Violence Law". Why can't they get rid of the embarrassing situation?
Recently, a reporter from the Beijing News contacted domestic violence shelters in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Nanning, Kunming and other places, and found that many shelters rely on rescue stations, and some domestic violence seekers can only live in the same roof with homeless people. under.
In the face of direct help, the responsible department in some regions buckles and kicks the ball. It is recommended that the seeker first call the police or go through legal procedures instead of actively providing help.
In addition, due to staffing difficulties, limited funding, and lack of professionals, some shelters can only provide simple life services, and cannot help victims with further legal, psychological, and employment needs.
The domestic violence asylum center set up by the Shunyi District Civil Affairs Bureau Relief Management Station.
Photography/Beijing News reporter Yao Yuan
Low occupancy rate vs. high demand
Low occupancy rate vs. high demand
"This is the accommodation area of our rescue station", unscrew the closed side door of the first floor, pass through the security check area, male accommodation area, duty monitoring room, partition partition, isolation observation room, at the end of the corridor, a room door hangs " "Domestic Violence Asylum Center" sign.
In 2003, the Shunyi District Civil Affairs Bureau Rescue Management Station had the function of domestic violence shelter.
Manager Yang of the management station introduced that in more than three years, the domestic violence management center only received two cases of asylum assistance-this utilization rate is already considered to be a relatively high level among rescue management stations in Beijing.
The reporter recently contacted the rescue management stations in Dongcheng, Xicheng, Fengtai, Miyun, Huairou, Shijingshan, Haidian, Fangshan and other districts by telephone. The person in charge said that in recent years, almost no domestic violence cases were sent to the rescue stations.
The situation in Beijing is not alone.
In March 2018, an anti-domestic violence shelter was established in Jiading District, Shanghai. Only two residents have been admitted for more than two years.
In 2009, Nanjing established an anti-domestic violence asylum center. Over the past 11 years, the total number of residents has been two.
According to data from the All-China Women’s Federation, there were more than 2,000 domestic violence shelters across the country in 2016, but in 2015, only 149 asylum services were provided for victims.
In contrast to the vacant shelters are the severe domestic violence in China.
In 2017, a data quoted by the official Weibo of the Press Center of the Ministry of Public Security showed that among the 270 million households in my country, about 30% of women have experienced domestic violence, and 157,000 women commit suicide each year, and 60% are due to domestic violence.
On October 19, 2009, 26-year-old Beijing woman Dong Shanshan was beaten to death by her husband.
In more than 4 months of domestic violence, Dong Shanshan called the police 8 times and applied for divorce to the court. She had nowhere to hide and lived in a rented house alone, but she would still be found and beaten by her husband.
Some commentators pointed out that if there is a safe shelter for domestic violence, perhaps tragedy will not happen.
Jin Wanxian, part-time vice chairman of the Women's Federation of Shanghai Jiading District and head of the Shanghai Xinyi Family Social Work Office, also emphasized the "necessity" of the shelter in an interview with a reporter from the Beijing News.
Before the establishment of a shelter in Jiading District in 2018, social organizations arranged for victims to live in a hotel, but the perpetrators can enter the hotel to find the victim.
"The ambulance station has special security personnel, and the perpetrator cannot enter the gate."
A 2016 survey report on the implementation of the anti-domestic violence shelter system in Shanghai showed that only 13.7% of the people said they had heard of shelters, while 85.6% said they were willing to accept shelter assistance when they suffered domestic violence.
"After being hurt, help seekers are worried about being abused again, and are reluctant to go home in the short term to face the depressive atmosphere. Therefore, they need a safe space as a short-term haven to calmly think about. Especially for foreign women, the social support they receive is more Little, unlike locals, you can settle in relatives and friends’ homes.” Jin Wanxian said, “From the perspective of social workers, having shelters makes our work more confident. We can’t provide services for her while pushing her back for the time being. There are dangerous places."
Liu Yongting, a lecturer at the Law School of China Women’s University, said that many people are working far away from their household registration areas. Not all victims of domestic violence have other houses or relatives to live in. In the case of isolation and helplessness, if the government shelters can provide accommodation, Many people are still willing to go.
"To put it bluntly, the shelter is not meant to shelter all the victims, and the government can't bear such a large financial pressure. However, for those in need, this is a guarantee, and sometimes it can even save lives."
There are frequent excuses and kicks
There are frequent excuses and kicks
Regarded as a safe and life-saving shelter, it is often associated with a series of news vocabulary: "cold", "no one cares", and "men can be a bird".
The reporter noticed that before the 2016 Anti-Domestic Violence Law was released, there was a dispute over the existence of shelters.
In 2018, Peng Yuling, Xia Yongmei, and Tu Li of the School of Political Science of Chengdu University published a paper "Research on the Operational Mechanism of my country's Anti-domestic Violence Shelter", which stated that in 1995, Wuhan, Hubei established my country's first women's shelter-"New Sun Women's Marriage Since then, anti-domestic violence relief centers have been established in various places, but most of them eventually closed down due to many factors such as funding, housing, and registration.
Existing, being questioned, idle and wasting resources; abolishing, the victim will lose the last space to escape.
Just as the necessity mentioned above, Liu Yongting believes that “the shelters mainly provide temporary shelters for those who have been subjected to domestic violence and have nowhere to go. Before the introduction of the Anti-domestic Violence Law, the use of shelters in some places was extremely low. , But considering the possible real needs of domestic violence victims, it is still stipulated in the law."
Liu Yongting said that this is a necessary measure, otherwise the victim will have to endure domestic violence or displacement because of the lack of shelter.
Article 18 of the "Anti-Domestic Violence Law" stipulates that: People's governments at the county or city level with districts may set up temporary shelters alone or rely on relief management agencies to provide temporary living assistance to victims of domestic violence.
At present, the main model of the asylum is based on the Women's Federation, which is composed of civil affairs departments, hospitals, and judicial institutions.
In 2015, the “Guiding Opinions on Doing a Good Job in Asylum and Aid for Victims of Domestic Violence” issued jointly by the Ministry of Civil Affairs and the All-China Women’s Federation clarified that the Women’s Federation shall provide victims with rights protection services in accordance with the law, and the assistance management agency of the civil affairs department shall undertake the establishment of domestic violence shelters. Responsibility.
With the backing of the law, the turning point did not occur, and the phenomenon of bucking and kicking the ball still exists.
Faced with domestic violence victims seeking help, the responsible departments in Beijing, Changsha and other places have suggested that they call the police or go through legal procedures before seeking protection in shelters.
The reporter recently called the Chongqing Women’s Federation and asked if there is a domestic violence shelter in the city. The two staff members said that they had not heard of it and were not clear about the situation.
A staff member of the Women's and Children's Activity Center in Beibei District advised the victim to call the police first, and the police would assess the degree of threat. If you want a divorce, you can go to the court, or go home to seek help and support from relatives and friends.
“There is only one room for accommodation and no food, but basically no victims are willing to live here. The vast majority of people choose to live with relatives and friends. Living here will be very lonely.”
Earlier reports stated that an anti-domestic violence asylum center was set up in Liangqing District, Nanning City, Guangxi.
However, the reporter called the Nanning Women’s Federation, and the staff suggested asking the women’s federation rights department. After that, the department said that they should find a rescue station. When the reporter asked the rescue station for help, the rescue station staff pushed the "ball" to the Women’s Federation again, indicating that it was the guidance of the Women’s Federation. The staff only introduced the relevant situation of the rescue station after asking for help.
"The civil affairs and other departments are not active in such matters, mainly because the legislation does not set specific application conditions, specific application procedures, and the legal consequences of not performing duties for asylums, so they are not motivated to perform their duties." Liu Yongting analyzed.
"Be mentally prepared" when you live in
"Be mentally prepared" when you live in
The rescue station where the Domestic Violence Shelter in Jiading District of Shanghai is located is an independent place, 50 square meters, equipped with reception rooms, rest rooms, bathing and other facilities, which can accommodate two victims at the same time.
"This is precisely to prevent domestic violence victims from living with drug users and mentally ill persons, causing bad feelings and causing secondary harm," Jin Wanxian said.
At the Shunyi Rescue Management Station in Beijing, the domestic violence shelter room has four beds, covered with clean light blue sheets and quilts. There are no extra arrangements. Special anti-epidemic posters during the epidemic are posted on the walls.
The help station is equipped with a laundry room, toilet, and storage room, which can provide bathing and brand new toiletries, as well as newly purchased autumn clothes, underwear and other basic supplies.
Due to the epidemic, a female rescue room was changed to an isolation observation room before moving in. The domestic violence shelter room was used for the overnight use of female vagrant and beggars. “But if there is a domestic violence shelter situation, we will also give priority to asylum for women. Vagrant beggars open up spare rooms." Station Master Yang said.
Such shelters are only a few.
Due to the reliance on rescue stations, vagrants, beggars and people with mental illnesses are the main targets of rescue, and it is difficult for most shelters to separate independent spaces for victims.
In several other districts in Beijing, the person in charge of the rescue station said bluntly that it is impossible to leave a room alone and wait for victims of domestic violence when space usage is very tight.
"If a domestic violence asylum case is sent, the rescue station will also set up a separate room to ensure that it is separated from the accommodation environment of the vagrants and beggars."
The staff of the Nanning Rescue Station reminded reporters that the people currently receiving assistance are mainly unemployed and mentally handicapped.
The living conditions in the rescue station range from 2-4 people per room.
"All those who need social assistance are treated the same."
Such "reminders" are not uncommon during interviews.
A staff member of the Guangzhou Women’s Federation who is engaged in anti-domestic violence work stated that several anti-domestic violence shelters set up in the area are located far away from the urban area. “You may have to make certain psychological preparations before going, because the shelters It is with the rescue station, and there may be some vagrants being rescued."
"Article 18 of the "Anti-Domestic Violence Law" implies that the government requires that shelter funds be included in the budget. Therefore, it cannot be said that the law does not provide for shelter funding, but that the government attaches little importance to issues. If shelters are safe and secret It is also known to the public that unlike some places where ordinary rescuers live, the victims are still willing to go.” Liu Yongting said.
"Anti-domestic violence cannot be'more' work"
"Anti-domestic violence cannot be'more' work"
Some shelters run smoothly, but are constrained by a shortage of professionals.
Since its listing on November 28, 2008, Kunming Anti-domestic Violence Shelter has received 1,196 domestic violence victims (mainly women) and received more than 2,700 consultations.
This number is rare among the cities visited and verified by reporters.
From 2010 to 2014, Kunming anti-domestic violence shelters had the most victims, with an average of more than 100 people staying each year.
"When the number of people was the most, we sat here in a room of victims." Chu Junxiu, director of the management office of the Kunming Municipal People's Government Rescue Management Station, recalled.
After so many years, Chu Junxiu also has some "complaints."
Because Kunming anti-domestic violence shelters are similar to shelters in many parts of the country, and they are set up in relief management stations.
"Our job is to rescue vagrants and beggars, but since the shelter is hung in the rescue station, we still have to do a good job."
Chu Junxiu said that the shelter has no separate funding, no staffing, and no permanent staff to do this job. For so many years, he and his colleagues have worked in the anti-domestic violence shelter with love.
"We are doing this job purely on a voluntary basis, and we can only do our best. At least let this matter have a continuity, and it is best to form a virtuous circle."
She believes that anti-domestic violence shelters should have dedicated funds and personnel, rather than "extra" jobs as relief stations.
In addition, the shelter lacks professional and fixed psychological counselors and medical staff, and more of them provide basic care in life.
"The existing asylum centers are far from insufficient in terms of human, material or financial resources." Associate Professor Peng Yuling of Chengdu University previously wrote that the existing domestic violence asylum centers only stay at providing temporary relief to victims of domestic violence. Provide some basic, short-term life services, such as food and accommodation.
In addition to life services, victims also need extended services such as law, psychology, and employment.
Jin Wanxian also said that within 7 days of staying in, the shelter will select psychological counselors and lawyers to provide consultation and conflict resolution services.
"But living in a shelter is not a long-term solution, and those seeking help will eventually have to return to their families and society."
"We provide you with places and food, but domestic violence cannot be resolved. The shelter has neither law enforcement rights nor coordination rights." An official from the civil affairs system of a provincial capital city, who did not want to be named, said that the biggest problem with shelters is that they cannot solve the real problem.
From "rescue" to "empowerment"
From "rescue" to "empowerment"
How to solve actual problems?
According to Rong Weiyi, an expert on women's theory and gender research, empowering women victims of violence is the key.
"The services provided by various domestic shelters are generally limited, but these hardware and technical problems are relatively easy to solve. If the function of the shelters cannot be upgraded from mere'aid' to'empowerment', there will be little room for development.
She said that the function of shelters has gone beyond the scope of "safe housing" and has become a way to empower women victims of violence. It is an important link in breaking the culture of silence and incorporating domestic violence intervention into the national political and legal system.
The Shunyi District Rescue Station rescued a woman who had suffered domestic violence and applied for asylum in 2018. The Shunyi District woman contacted the rescue station, public security, and judicial departments, but when she was about to perform the judicial process, the lady chose to abandon the legal route and returned. family.
"On the one hand, she was worried that her husband would cause harm to her family, on the other hand, she said that she had passed the impulsive period and calmed down and made a decision." Station Master Yang said.
Liu Yongyan believes that the top priority is to allow victims of domestic violence to truly find a place in the shelter.
In addition, the shelter can also cooperate with other departments to provide some basic vocational training or psychological construction, legal assistance during the stay of the victims, empower the victims, assist them in employment or go through litigation procedures.
In addition, Liu Yongting stated that the “Anti-domestic Violence Law” does not clearly define the standards for setting up shelters, working principles, asylum applications, conditions for escaping from asylum, asylum period, daily management, etc. There is a lack of standards for the setting up and use of shelters, calling on the state to be able to Formulate relevant rules and regulations as soon as possible.
"Currently the occupancy rate of shelters is very low, and some are basically vacant. The functional positioning of shelters is also relatively narrow, such as labor skill training, psychological intervention, social worker intervention, and convenient housing needs for victims and their minor children. be ignored."
As early as the National People’s Congress in 2017, Chen Xiurong, a member of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, suggested that the Ministry of Civil Affairs formulate and implement the "Anti-Domestic Violence Law" implementation opinions, "Implementation opinions should guide rescue management agencies, welfare institutions, and temporary shelters. Provisions are made for domestic violence asylum work, and the residents committees, village committees, social work service agencies, rescue management agencies, welfare agencies and their staff are guided to make mandatory reports."
Moreover, since the main responsibility for the implementation of the Anti-Domestic Violence Law lies with relevant departments such as the public security, courts, civil affairs, and justice, Chen Xiurong suggests that the above-mentioned departments combine the responsibilities of the departments to study and formulate the implementation methods, opinions, rules, and judicial interpretations of the Anti-Domestic Violence Law as soon as possible. .
Beijing News reporter Wang Jun Zhang Lu Wu Tingting Ma Jinqian Ying Yue Xu Meihui