Cigarette smoke increases the risk of exposure

Childhood vaccination may protect against "Covid-19"

  • People whose immune systems have responded to the MMR vaccine may have a lower risk of infection.



The latest scientific studies on the emerging "Corona" virus discuss the efforts made to find a treatment or vaccines for the "Covid-19" disease that is caused by the virus, and among these studies are what have been mentioned that vaccination during childhood may help prevent acute infection with "Covid-19" .

And new data indicate that people whose immune systems have responded strongly to the MMR vaccine, they may be less likely to be severely affected if they are infected with the emerging "Corona" virus.

The MMR2 vaccine, manufactured by Merck and licensed in 1979, stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies.

Yesterday, researchers reported in the journal "MBIO" that they found that among the 50 patients with "Covid-19" under the age of 42, who were vaccinated with the "MMR2" vaccine while they were children, the higher the The levels of antibodies called "EGJ" produced by the vaccine against the "mumps" virus in particular, had less severe symptoms.

And "Covid-19" was asymptomatic in people who had the highest level of antibodies to "mumps".

More research is needed to prove that the vaccine prevents acute infection with "Covid-19".

Nevertheless, Geoffrey Gould, who participated in the study, said in a statement: "The new findings explain the significantly lower rate of infection of children with (Covid-19), compared to adults, as well as a much lower mortality rate."

He continued: "Children receive their first vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella at the age of 12 to 15 months, while they receive the second vaccination from the age of four to six years."

cigarette smoke

In a related context, researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles, found that exposure to cigarette smoke makes airway cells more vulnerable to infection with the emerging "Corona" virus.

They obtained the cells lining the airway from five individuals without "Covid-19", and exposed some of the cells to cigarette smoke in test tubes.

Then they exposed all the cells to the "Corona" virus.

The researchers said in the journal "Cell Steam Cell" that when compared to cells that were not exposed to smoke, the cells exposed to smoke were two or three times more likely to be infected with the virus.

An analysis of each individual's airway cells showed that cigarette smoke reduces the immune response to the virus.

"If the air passages are considered like high walls protecting a castle, smoking cigarettes is like making holes in these walls," said Brigitte Jumper, who was involved in the research. "This allows the virus to enter and take over cells."

Infected cells die

Cells infected with the emerging "Corona" virus die within a day or two, and researchers have found a way to find out what the virus does with them.

By combining multiple imaging techniques, they saw that the virus was creating factories to replicate viruses into cells that resemble balloon clusters.

The researchers said in the journal Cell Host and Microbe this week that the virus disrupts the cellular systems responsible for secreting substances.

"Moreover, the virus reorganizes (the cytoskeleton), which gives cells their shape, and works like a railroad system to allow the transport of various charges within the cell," said Ralph Bartenschlager, co-author of the study from Heidelberg University in Germany.

Partenschlager said: "When his team added drugs that affect the cytoskeleton, the virus encountered a problem in copying itself, which indicates that the virus needs to reorganize the cytoskeleton, in order to reproduce with high efficiency."

He added, "We now have a much better idea of ​​how (SARS-Coffee-2) changes the intracellular structure of an infected cell, and this will help us understand why cells die so quickly."

He said: “The (Zika) virus causes similar changes in cells, so it may be possible to develop drugs for (Covid-19) that work against other viruses.

The Zika virus is transmitted by mosquito bites, and it causes what is known as (Zika fever), which has a link with microcephaly in newborns.

"Astra Zinc" looks good

Researchers in the journal "The Lancet" reported that the experimental "Covid-19" vaccine for "AstraZink" and the University of Oxford produced strong immune responses in the elderly during an intermediate stage trial.

Late-stage trials are still being conducted to ascertain whether the vaccine protects against "Covid-19" in a wide range of people, including those with basic diseases.

The current study included 560 healthy volunteers, 240 of whom were 70 years of age or over.

The volunteers received one or two doses of the vaccine, made with a weak version of the common cold virus found in chimpanzees, or a placebo.

No serious side effects were reported.

Participants over the age of 80, physically weak patients, and those with underlying chronic diseases were excluded, according to an introductory article published with the study.

"It is increasingly known that asthenia affects the response of older adults to vaccines," the study authors said.

It is important to develop a plan to take physical vulnerability into account when developing a (Covid-19) vaccine. ”

Geoffrey Gold: "The new results explain the lower rate of infection in children compared to adults."

Brigitte Jumpert: "The airways are like high walls that protect a castle, and cigarettes make holes in these walls."

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