In Asia, the Philippines are particularly affected by rising sea levels and vulnerable to increasing storms.
NOEL CELIS / AFP
Rich countries invested 78.9 billion euros in 2018 to help developing countries adapt to climate change, according to the OECD.
An amount far from the promises and also largely overestimated according to the NGO Oxfam.
The countries of the North had committed in 2009 to increase to 100 billion dollars by 2020 the assistance to the countries of the South to adapt to the impacts of climate change and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.
This promise has since been a recurring subject of anger in poor countries, the first victims of the impacts of climate change, who denounce the lack of solidarity of the rich countries, the main responsible for this warming.
Asia, the main destination for funds
According to the OECD report, this North-South aid reached 78.9 billion in 2018. An increase of 11% compared to 2017 (71.2 billion), but the growth rate has slowed compared to 2016- 2017 (+ 22%, 58.6 billion in 2016).
More than two-thirds (70%) of the funds go to actions to reduce emissions and only 21% to adaptation, the remainder going to activities combining the two.
As for the geographical distribution, Asia is the main beneficiary (43%), ahead of Africa (25%) and the Americas (17%).
Every year, the assessments of the OECD are challenged by NGOs questioning the sincerity of certain financing labeled “climate”.
In October, Oxfam estimated North-South climate finance at an average of $ 59.5 billion for 2017 and 2018, of which barely a third (between 19 and 22.5 billion) would be real climate assistance.
The NGO calls into question in particular the fact that some countries count the whole of a development project as climate finance when only a part is devoted to it.
For example count all the financing of the construction of a building because it incorporates solar panels.
Oxfam also denounces the excessive share of loans compared to direct aid, as well as the low share of funds intended for adaptation to climate change, especially for the most vulnerable countries, such as the island states that will suffer from it. the first impacts.
A very real threat
“Climate finance is vital security for communities facing record heat waves, terrifying storms and devastating floods,” said Tracy Carty, one of the authors of the Oxfam report.
“Even if governments are grappling with Covid-19, they must not lose sight of the growing threat of the climate crisis,” she added.
Even if the pledge of $ 100 billion in annual aid were honored, it would fall short of helping the poorest countries prepare for global warming.
The last assessment of the United Nations Environment Program, published in 2016, estimated the needs for adaptation actions in developing countries alone between 140 and 300 billion annually by 2030.
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