New method of Nobel Prize in Chemistry "Genome Editing" Research progresses in Japan October 7, 23:38

Two researchers from a German research institute and an American university who developed a new method of "genome editing" were selected for this year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Research is also underway in Japan using this technology.

This is the reaction of Japanese researchers.

Succeeded in aquaculture of red sea bream with 1.2 times more body than usual

Professor Keitaro Iedo of Kinki University, who is conducting research using the technology of "genome editing" that won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry this year, said, "When I first learned about the technology of genome editing, it was too epoch-making technology. I wanted to use it right away. It was an earlier award than I expected, but I thought I would definitely win it someday. "

Professor Iedo's group has succeeded in cultivating red sea bream, which has increased its body weight 1.2 times more than usual by genome editing technology, and is currently working on improving other fish such as tiger puffer fish. about it.

Professor Iedo said, "In the past, it took 15 to 20 years to improve the breed of fish by multiplying generations. It was shortened to about 4 years by using genome editing technology. Genome editing The amount of food eaten by red sea bream is the same as that of normal red sea bream, but the amount of meat increases. "

Professor Iedo and his colleagues said that they are conducting research with the aim of distributing red sea bream that has been bred by genome editing. "The Japanese aquaculture industry continues to be flat, but genome editing technology can be used. If this is the case, we should be able to improve the breeds of fish that can be cultivated more efficiently. I hope that this award will lead to the advancement of the use of genome editing technology in Japan and the opportunity for the aquaculture industry itself to regain its vitality. " I did.

"Dramatically increase the speed of crop breeding"

Professor Hiroshi Egami of the University of Tsukuba, who has been conducting research on breeding tomatoes using "genome editing" technology, said, "This technology has dramatically increased the speed of breeding crops. For many years now. I thought I would win the award, so I thought it was "finally." I think that the award recognized genome editing technology as one of the technologies that are useful to people worldwide. "

Professor Egami has developed a tomato that contains a lot of ingredients that are said to lower blood pressure, and is proceeding with procedures for sale. "In the agricultural field, breeding has progressed using mutations, so genome editing It is said that there is no problem in applying it, but there are some parts that need to be discussed in each field such as medical care and livestock, so I hope that this award will raise interest and make this technology more useful to people. I want to do it. "

"Use in agriculture to mature" Medical ethical issues

Masashi Furukawa, a researcher at the Japan Science and Technology Agency, said, "The chemistry award was evaluated in terms of the chemical reaction to the gene sequence, and it seems that its use in agriculture has matured. So, in the medical aspect, research is progressing in cancer treatment etc., but the ethical aspect has not been solved and this is an issue. This time, the award was given in a short period of 8 years from the publication of the paper. It reflects the fact that it has received a lot of attention worldwide. "

"A mechanism to firmly evaluate the risk of genome editing"

Professor Tetsuya Ishii of Hokkaido University, who specializes in bioethics, said, "I think that this Nobel Prize was awarded in order to receive it. However, the genome editing technology does not intend to modify genes. It has been pointed out that there is a risk of this risk occurring. As long as it is a technology related to health such as improvement of food varieties and application to medical care, we will create a mechanism to firmly evaluate this risk domestically or internationally. I think that is required. Also, it is necessary to prohibit acts such as manipulating the genes of fertilized eggs using genome editing technology as done in China to actually give birth to a baby. " I am.

"The big question is how far this technology will be applied to humans."

Professor Kazuto Kato of the Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, who is familiar with life science and medical ethics, described the genome editing method that won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry as "a groundbreaking technology that is very useful. "There is no doubt that it is," he said. "The technology is still immature, and the big question is how far this technology will be applied to humans. Even if it is to cure a disease. The world's belief is that fertilized eggs should be genome-edited and the rewritten genes should not be passed on from generation to generation. In Japan, research is prohibited, but legal regulations I would like you to proceed with the examination. "

Professor Kato said that it is necessary for countries around the world to work together to create rules. "It is necessary for society as a whole to think about ethics, law, etc. so that we can confidently proceed with research on truly useful technologies." I was talking.

Director Shinya Yamanaka, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University "Revolutionary Discovery"

Shinya Yamanaka, director of the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, announced on Twitter that Jennifer Doudna has been selected as the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Director Yamanaka and Mr. Doudna are both researchers at the Gladstone Institutes in California, USA.

Among them, Director Yamanaka said, "Congratulations to Dr. Doudna for receiving the award. As a colleague of Gladstone Institutes, I am delighted from the bottom of my heart. Genome editing technology using" CRISPR-Cas9 "is not limited to medicine. It is a groundbreaking discovery in life science and I would like to express my deepest respect for its achievements. "

"Technology that revolutionized history"

Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier, who have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, have a close relationship with each other and are conducting research on treatment methods using genome editing technology. Professor Osamu Nureki said, "It is a technology that has revolutionized history because it can rewrite the design drawings of all life activities. Since this technology came out, the range of applications has expanded at an accelerating pace, and it has had a great impact on society. That's a big achievement. "

Professor Wetsuki also said, "Although I am also a rival, I have congratulated each other when the research was successful. As researchers in the same field, I am pleased to receive this award. In the future, I would like to continue my research and develop treatments for underlying diseases and intractable diseases so that many people who are suffering can be saved. "

"Momentum to push the genome editing industry forward"

Professor Taku Yamamoto of the Center for Genome Editing Innovation, Hiroshima University, who is the chairman of the Japan Genome Editing Society, said, "I thought that sooner or later genome editing would win the Nobel Prize. I am very pleased to receive the award because it proved that it was easier and more efficient to edit genetic information than the method and made it available to any researcher. "

On top of that, he said that the development of new treatments and foods that make use of genome editing technology is progressing in the world. "It is a technology that will significantly change our lives in the future, but Japan is behind the world in some respects. I hope that the Nobel Prize will give many young people an interest and give them a chance to push the genome editing industry forward. "

On the other hand, Professor Yamamoto said, "In a situation where we have complete control over ethical issues such as the safety issue of how accurately genetic information can be rewritten and the possibility of creating designer babies. No. I know it's a great technology, but I have to solve these problems while using it. "