Using online loan platforms to spend on daily consumption has become a common consumption method for college students, expert analysis
Using online loan platforms to spend on daily consumption has become a common consumption method for college students, expert analysis
Why college campuses have become "harvesting ground" for online loans
Why college campuses have become "harvesting ground" for online loans
● Under the influence of the Internet + new business formats, Internet consumer credit has risen rapidly, and the use of online loan platforms to spend daily consumption has become a common way of consumption for college students
● Online lending is currently the most common way of financial consumption. It is necessary to further strengthen the promotion of the pros and cons of online lending, and make financial consumption a compulsory course for college students; while cracking down on illegal online lending platforms, rules should be issued as soon as possible to standardize the formal online platforms for college students Loan behavior
● Consumers should correctly understand the functions of credit cards, spend rationally overdrafts, do not "reserve a card with a card", "repay a loan with a loan", let alone "short-term borrowing and long-term use", and rationally use the consumption support role of credit cards and other consumer loan tools
□ Our reporter Zhao Li
□ Intern Li Zhuhong Guo Yuanqiao
Under the influence of the Internet + new business format, Internet consumer credit has risen rapidly.
Some media reported that using online loan platforms to spend daily consumption has become a common way of consumption for college students.
During the epidemic, college students who used to rely on living expenses and part-time jobs to repay online loans, because of the lack of "income", the debt was close to "explosion."
Some experts believe that online lending is currently the most common way of financial consumption. It is necessary to further strengthen the promotion of the pros and cons of online lending, and make financial consumption a compulsory course for college students; while cracking down on illegal online lending platforms, regulations should be issued as soon as possible to standardize formal online platforms Loan behavior for college students, such as setting the maximum loan limit, avoiding multi-platform lending, etc.
Cannot make ends meet during the epidemic
Demolition of the east wall to make up the west wall to repay the loan
In November 2019, the "Research Report on Credit Card Consumption Scenarios for Post-95 People" released by China Guangfa Bank showed that in recent years, under the influence of Internet + new business models, Internet consumer credit has rapidly risen.
The Internet consumer financial products launched by major e-commerce companies emerge in endlessly, such as Huabei, Willful Payment, etc. Because of their low application threshold, simple procedures, and convenient use, they are loved by young people who love online shopping and are the first attempts of many "post-95s" Products used in credit consumption.
A reporter from the Rule of Law Daily found that many college students who usually use online loan platforms or credit cards to make advance purchases encountered difficulties in repayment during the epidemic.
Liu Chang, who is currently in his junior year, told a reporter from the Rule of Law Daily that he usually uses Huabei as a payment method. “Even if you go to a convenience store to buy a bottle of water for two yuan, Huabei will make Huabei”.
Because Huabei can spend the current month and repay the next month, this is equivalent to spending a little more in advance each month, and spend the living expenses given by the parents next month.
"But during the epidemic, they all lived at home, parents didn't pay for living expenses, and then Huabei's repayment couldn't be connected. In the end, it was repaid by the pocket money given by grandpa." Liu Chang said, "I have been at home for several months. , I deliberately reduced some unnecessary online shopping, but I will continue to use Huabei when everything returns to normal life after school starts."
Compared to Liu Chang's "easy" response, Yang Hai, who just graduated last year, was not so lucky.
Yang Hai said that he had just graduated, and he was living in Beijing. The rent and cost of living are under pressure. “Beijing rents a house and pays three. I usually use a credit card to pay in advance, and then send it out every month. I have to pay my credit card again. But because of the epidemic, the small company is not profitable. I was fired and the credit card cannot be repaid on time. I have to spend money to find a job and live a life. The financial pressure is too great. I have no choice but to pay Borrow a little money on several large lending platforms and make a temporary turnover.”
Speaking of online loans, Xiao Jiang, a senior at a college in Guizhou, said that it has made his quality of university life worse and worse.
"Huabei still has more than 3,000 yuan to pay. There is no living expenses to stay at home this year, and I borrowed a lot of money from classmates and relatives, and finally there is no "explosive thunder"." Xiao Jiang said that he couldn't get rid of the online loan. Like a bottomless pit.
Liu Chang told the reporter of "Rules of Law Daily" that many students around him repay credit card loans by "using cards to raise a card", that is, by handling credit cards of different institutions or borrowing from different online lending platforms, using different repayment dates. Revolving repayment.
For example, there are a lot of posts on the Internet similar to "How to pay 10,000 yuan credit card bill with 500 yuan".
This type of post stated that as long as consumers make any payment on any day between the credit card payment date and the payment date, any payment will be treated as a payment, and any payment will be included in the next month's bill. in.
The post said for example, if there is a credit card that needs to be repaid 10,000 yuan, but only 500 yuan in hand.
At this time, you only need to deposit 500 yuan between the billing date and the repayment date, and then use the third-party platform to brush it out.
For each operation, the 500 yuan deposited will be counted as a repayment, and the 500 yuan brushed out will be included in the next month's bill.
Do it back and forth 20 times and you can pay off your credit card bill.
Regarding this method of repayment, the industry believes that this is a temporary solution but not a permanent solution. The 10,000 yuan credit card debt has not been paid off. "It is just postponing the debt this month to next month. In addition, Cardholders also need to pay a certain fee to the payment platform, and it takes about 75 yuan to return 10,000 yuan."
The Consumer Insurance Bureau of the China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission also issued a risk warning document stating that consumers should correctly understand the functions of credit cards, make rational overdraft consumption, and do not "reserve a card with a card" or "repay a loan with a loan", let alone "short-term borrowing and long-term use", and use it reasonably Consumption support of consumer loan tools such as credit cards.
Precisely push online loan advertisements
Loan lines continue to increase
According to the post-epidemic retail consumption insight report released by iResearch in June 2020, in the structure of Chinese netizens, more than 50% of the "post-90s" monthly consumption is higher than 2,000 yuan, and more than 20% of the "post-90s" monthly consumption More than 3000 yuan.
Therefore, advertisements of various online loan products are overwhelming, flooding young people's mobile phone software.
A reporter from the Rule of Law Daily found that many formal and large consumer loan platforms now push advertisements on various social media apps, and even in WeChat Moments, some loan platform advertisements will also appear in the form of information streams.
Take a takeaway client as an example. Multiple payment methods are allowed on the payment page. The top one is "ICBC credit card discounted 6.6 yuan", and the client's own brand Meituan's "monthly payment: can be reduced 2.5 yuan," Randomly reduced up to 88 yuan”; On the “My” page of another takeaway client, the “Borrow” function is also supported in the “My Wallet” option, and the loan can be up to 100,000 yuan, and the box is in red "High Stakes" is very bright in the overall page.
Yang Hai told a reporter from the Rule of Law Daily that when he used a major domestic online platform App to scan news, he would see online loan video advertisements every time he read a few articles.
"When using Alipay to pay, it will remind you to give priority to Huabai payment, or tell you that Huabai payment has red envelopes to attract users to activate Huabai function." Liu Chang said, even on some mainstream online consumer loan platforms, they will take the initiative Push some information on loan discounts or consumer discounts to users, "If the frequency of use is high, the loan amount will continue to increase, and some of my classmates have increased their loan amount in the past two years."
Yin Zhentao, director of the Financial Technology Research Office of the Institute of Finance of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, believes that platforms such as Huabei and Zibei all support instalment services and are relatively formal. "At the same time, the quota for college students is also relatively small and will not cause Too much risk and repayment pressure, and more attention should be paid to those illegal online lending platforms."
It is understood that the loose approval of some online loan platforms and the loan quotas that exceed the personal loan repayment ability have laid hidden dangers for college students.
According to experts, many online loan products on the market claim that the daily interest rate is less than 0.05%, which makes people think that the interest rate is very low, but in fact this daily interest rate corresponds to a high annual interest rate of 18%.
In this regard, many interviewees said that for the sake of profit, online loan platforms deliberately cultivate users' advanced consumption habits and guide users, especially young users, to overdraw their personal accounts with credit guarantees.
These formal, large-scale consumer online lending platforms have used "warm water to boil frogs" to penetrate the campus, overdrawing the vitality of young people.
"High registration amount in one second, lending in seconds with ID card" is the main propaganda slogan of many online lending platforms.
"Under such a big environment, it feels like you don't need to ask someone if you want to borrow money. You only need to download apps to make money." Liu Chang said.
Pre-consumption is increasingly popular
Online loan platforms urgently need to be regulated
The so-called "campus loan" is simply a small loan issued to college students.
On the campus online loan platform, college students only need to submit information online, pass the review, and pay a certain fee to easily apply for a credit loan.
Generally speaking, campus online loan channels can be divided into three categories: one is a local P2P loan platform, which is used for college students’ education and entrepreneurship, such as the loan services provided by "prestigious school loans" and "wolaidai"; the second is specifically for college students Some of the installment shopping platforms, such as "fun installment", "tenure installment", and "pineapple bag", etc., some also provide lower amount of cash withdrawal; the third is the credit business provided by traditional e-commerce platforms.
Objectively speaking, campus loans to a certain extent solve the financial needs of some college students, such as entrepreneurship or reasonable consumption.
However, the irregular operation of some campus online loan platforms and the uncontrolled consumption of individual college students have superimposed such factors as violent reminders of online loan institutions and tragedies caused by individual students’ inability to repay.
Yang Mei, who works as a grade counselor at a university in Chongqing, told the reporter of "Rules of Law Daily" that some college students never get loans, and these students currently account for the majority; some have relatively small debts, and these students only work on one or a few platforms. Borrowing, they are fully capable of paying off the loan with their own living expenses; some of the debts are very high. This part of the students borrowed on multiple platforms, demolished the east wall to make up the west wall, and problems such as "naked loans" appeared in these students.
"It is the problems of such students with very high debts that have caused people to have a negative impression of campus loans. From the actual situation, such students have strong vanity and unrestrained spending, and their parents are not very responsible. "Yang Mei said, "Some students don't know enough about personal credit investigation, and they don't care that they may have a large number of overdue records, and these overdue records will lead to deterioration of credit information and affect their future financial life."
In the face of frequent problems with campus loans, the regulatory authorities are constantly strengthening supervision.
Remediation of online loans such as campus loans and related clearance work has been advancing from the central to the local level.
But why such problems still exist? Yin Zhentao believes that there are two main reasons:
On the one hand, although my country's regulatory regulations are relatively clear, there is such a demand in the market at present, "where there is demand, there will be supply."
Some borrowers, including students, do not have sufficient financial knowledge to identify the risks of these lending platforms, or for various reasons, although they may have a basic understanding of these lending platforms, there is no other way to obtain loans. , Can only borrow money through these lending platforms.
Many students or young people who borrow money from these platforms may not be served by traditional financial institutions at all, and even the purpose and direction of borrowing money may not be reasonable, compliant and legal;
On the other hand, the regulatory authorities are unable to immediately discover every bad lending platform. There are many small platforms that are very hidden on the Internet. At present, they can only deal with it after understanding the relevant situation, which is an "after-the-fact" solution.
“It’s worth noting that my country has actually issued a lot of policies and regulations on campus loan platforms, and now it is mainly a problem of implementation.” Yin Zhentao analyzed that the regulatory agencies need to "actively discover" these bad loan platforms and can adopt some advanced technological measures. After discovering the clues, investigations and punishments will be conducted through institutions such as the industry and commerce and the China Banking Regulatory Commission; at the same time, “passive discovery” is also required. After the borrowers discover clues, they must actively report and complain.
After discovering illegal platforms, severe punishments are required to increase the cost of violations and deter these criminals.
A new type of scam emerged
Induce the cancellation of online loan account
An epidemic not only disrupted the normal order of social production, but also gave birth to scams such as "logging off online loan accounts and telecom fraud."
On July 8, the Anti-fraud Laboratory of 360 Finance and 360 Mobile Guard issued the "Analysis Report on Telecom Fraud on Cancellation of Online Loan Accounts in the First Half of 2020" (hereinafter referred to as the "Report"). A month-on-month increase of 178% in April.
The victims expanded from those who had registered online loan accounts during college to office workers, among which 63% had not registered for online loan accounts before, and about 50% were defrauded of multiple online loan platforms.
As the country continues to crack down on illegal campus loans and continue to publicize, some students and other groups have gradually realized the importance of personal financial credit, so some scammer groups have set up the so-called cancellation of campus loans scam by looking at "opportunities."
During the interview, Sun Fang, who had just encountered such scams, told a reporter from the Rule of Law Daily how he was deceived.
In April of this year, she received a call. The other party claimed to be the customer service of a financial app, saying that "My 100,000 yuan loan has been overdue for two months and has not been repaid. This will have a great impact on my credit record."
Sun Fang said that he had never borrowed money on the financial App, but then the other party reported Sun Fang's ID number, university and major and other personal information.
"As soon as I heard that all my own information, I panicked. The other party said that my personal information might have been stolen, and they wanted to help me figure this out, so I added him to QQ." Sun Fang said, adding After QQ, the other party sent her a series of work permits and loan slips.
"When I saw this information, I believed it more, and then performed a series of operations in accordance with the other party's requirements." Sun Fang recalled that he finally downloaded a financial App and borrowed 5,000 yuan and transferred it to the other party's bank card account.
"Later, I wanted to confirm with the other party whether my credit report was no problem, but found that the other party had blocked it, and then I realized that I was cheated."
Sun Fang said that there are still many people who are deceived like her. There are more than 1,000 victims in a group she joined, and the deceived amount ranges from several thousand yuan to tens of thousands of yuan.
After realizing that he had been deceived, Sun Fang hurried to call the police, but after the police opened the case, they said that it was difficult to track down this type of situation, and that many cases of the same situation were left out.
The "Report" pointed out that the most commonly used information by scammers involved ID numbers, home addresses, schools and majors, telephone numbers, etc. This caused many victims to mistakenly believe that they had been registered for online loan accounts and were eager to distinguish their relationship. This falls into a trap.
The "Report" shows that 63% of the victims have never registered for an online loan account before, and this type of novice users know little about the cancellation process of an online loan account and are more likely to be deceived.
Analysts in the industry believe that the difficulty in defending rights after such write-off campus loan fraud is that criminals trick the victim into taking a loan from an online loan platform and then transfer to the designated account. Although the crime of fraud can be determined, the victim However, the loan was obtained in the name of an individual. If the loan is not repaid or processed in time, it will affect the personal credit of the victim, and even bear legal responsibility. How does the victim prove that the loan was deceived by a scammer, not his own subjective Willingness is also a problem.
At the same time, if the legal responsibility of fraud crimes is pursued, especially in some cases involving a wide range and large amount of money, the judicial process is relatively long, and it is not known whether the defrauded money can be recovered or how much can be recovered.
In this regard, 360 Financial Anti-Fraud Lab reminded that personal credit is a "credit profile" established by the People's Bank of China for individuals. The credit information mainly records the behavior of individuals repaying loans through commercial banks, online loan App account cancellation and individuals There is no direct relationship with credit reporting, and any third party has no right to obtain credit reporting information.
The allegations that “college students’ online loan accounts affect personal credit investigation” and “reduced the safety factor of credit investigation” are all frauds.