Wei Zhuang's "Qin Fu Yin" has 238 sentences and 1666 words, which is the longest existing Tang poem. After Wei Zhuang became famous, he "regretted that he had few writings" and banned the poem, which caused it to be lost. The Tang Dynasty manuscript of the poem was found in the Dunhuang Tibetan Scripture Cave in the early last century. In 1923, Wang Guowei collated and collated and restored the full picture of historical masterpieces.

  Wei Zhuang worshipped Du Fu, found the site of Du Fu's thatched cottage in Huanhuaxi, Chengdu, and reorganized the thatched cottage to preserve it. Du Fu Thatched Cottage has since become a holy place in the history of Chinese literature.

Portrait of Wei Zhuang

  Xu Yongqiang/Text

  After the Anshi Rebellion, the Tang Dynasty gradually came to an end. Wei Zhuang, with his grand ambition of "Kuang Yaoshun" and "rebuilding a peaceful foundation" throughout his life, fell into a struggling heart: Chang'an could not continue to stay, the warlords of the Central Plains slaughtered and plundered, only the king of Xishu treated the literati favorably. "Most scholars want to rely on building to avoid chaos", Shu Chinese talents gather.

  In the spring of the first year of Tianfu (901), the 66-year-old Wei Zhuang embarked on his journey into Shu with the guilt of turning away from the royal family, and with hesitation and anxiety. After entering Shu for ten years, Wei Zhuang became the prime minister, an extremely human minister, but he never forgot the old Tang Dynasty. He no longer "poems expressing aspirations", and turned his creation focus to ci. Together with Wen Tingyun, he became the representative of the highest achievements of the Huajian School of Ci, and established the important position of "Huajian School" in the Five Dynasties Ci arena.

  The two places in Shu are different

  Wei Zhuang’s family was in a poor family, most of his life was rough, poor and sick, and when he was nearly sixty years old, he went to Chang'an to take the exam. He was finally admitted to the rank of 58 at the age of 58, but only got a junior official from the 9th rank, but his ecstasy still made him Cry.

  In the fourth year of Qianning (897), the Xichuan Jiedu envoy Wang Jian and the Dongchuan Jiedu envoy Gu Yanhui attacked each other, and Tang Zhaozong ordered Wei Zhuang to be a judge and cooperated with the adviser Li Xun to mediate in Shu. Upon receiving the imperial order, Wei Zhuang, who wanted to display his talents, couldn't hide the joy and excitement in his heart, and wrote "Jiyoushengli Living": "If you have received a goose from Yuanxing, you should pay respect to Ziwei Lang. I am in a hurry to write a book, and I feel that I am busy with the grass. The white horse is like pity for Zhu Fugui, and the colored clothes provokes the incense of the imperial furnace. It has been ten years to travel the beam guest without changing the green collar to serve the king." The excitement overflows in the poem. .

  On the way, Wei Zhuang marveled at the steepness of the Shu Road, and wrote "Jiaoya Pavilion": "Li Bai once sang about the difficulty of the Shu Road, and he heard that the sky will rise in the daytime. Today, I will pass the Jiaoya Pavilion at night, and I will believe that the Star River is in front of the horse." Pavilion Road, Nine Heavens Galaxy seems to be close to the horse's head, highlighting the height of the mountain with exaggerated verses. Wei Zhuang met Wang Jian at Zhangfei Village in Zizhou (now Santai County, Sichuan). Wang Jian pointed to the soldier holding the flag outside the door and said: "The feeling of a soldier is invincible." Rejecting the imperial order, he took the opportunity to unify the East and the West.

  With helpless loss, Wei Zhuang returned to Chang'an. Although he was promoted to Zuo Buque, he was still a seventh-rank idle post. Wei Zhuang, who was extremely disappointed in the Tang dynasty, wrote a series of sad and bleak nostalgic poems, helplessly "subject to Wang Jian".

  Unlike the first time full of excitement, Wei Zhuang's second entry into Shu was full of hesitation and hesitation. This is fully embodied in his poem on his way into Shu: "Although the stone shape is like a silk, the mountain shape is like a chicken. It is susceptible to the wind, and the rain is like a cry. The vines are woven in the green cage, and the pine is long and the feathers are low. Intentionally, for fear of the guests.” "Jigongqi" borrowed Meng Changjun’s allusion of passing through Hangu Pass at night to express his inner feelings: This time entering Shu is a departure from the royal family! Two of the poems write "cock crowing": "bringing rain is like screaming", "not crowing is not intentional", like crowing but not crowing, nor crowing like crowing. The two contradictory words rightly express the inner anxiety of the poet when he went to Shu. "Send me a trip to Sanshu Road alone, Xianjun's new climb to the Jiuxiao Ladder" in "Wei Xueshi in the same year", "Send me to the Sanshu Road" The last resort. Traveling alone, Wei Zhuang had no hope for his future in the southwest corner.

  However, Wei Zhuang did not expect that after Wang Jian unified the two Sichuans, great changes had taken place in Shu, and the people's lives were stable. Arrived in Hanzhou (now Guanghan City, Sichuan), he was surprised by the peaceful sight. There is a poem from "Hanzhou" in "The Collection of Wei Zhuang · Supplement": "Binong first arrived in Hanzhou City, and Guoyi Tower was shocking. The colors of Songgui Ying, the sound of orchestras in the wind and the lotus. The heart is not like that. After the chaos, the fortune should be peaceful. For ten days to sleep in the Jinyan Post, Linqi has no hate face." Not only the scenery here is beautiful, but there is also a vibrant scene everywhere. What I saw before my eyes were the flags in the pine forest, and what I heard was the sound of orchestras coming from the lotus pond, which changed Wei Zhuang's view of the land of Shu. The road to Shu was hard, Wei Zhuang saw a trace of longing at the fork in his life.

  Daqi was born late

  In the first seven years after Wei Zhuang entered Shu, he had two great achievements: First, he prevented Wang Jian from conquering Zhu Quanzhong in the name of "revening his ancestors" and avoided the civil war in Shu. The second is to see through Zhu Quanzhong's plan to annex Shu, and eliminate the shadow of war from the external vassal. In March 907, after Zhu and Wen established the Liang Kingdom, Datang was destroyed. Wei Zhuang led officials and people to support Wang Jian as emperor. Wei Zhuang made positive contributions to Wang Jian's expansion and consolidation of the territory and the establishment of the former Shu regime. As a result, his political status seems to be steadily increasing. In the sixth year of Tianfu (906), he was a soothing envoy of Xishu; the following year he was promoted to Zuo Sanqi as a regular attendant, and he was sentenced to be under the authority of Zhongshu. After supporting Wang Jian ascended the throne, he was appointed prime minister, and the former Shu founding system was mostly used.

  A 66-year-old man applied to the Xichuan shogunate. He wanted to spend his twilight years in peace, but he was able to be the prime minister of all sorts of things and the number one person under ten thousand in Qianshu at the age of 73. He is also an extremely human minister. It was a late bloomer, which I am afraid Wei Zhuang could not imagine when he entered Shu.

  Changes in life circumstances are also reflected in his poems. Wei Zhuang once visited Huansha River in Chengdu and wrote a song called "Song of Begging Colors" to promote his literary talents, "Xue Tao came in his dream last night, and diligently persuades him to look for him." At this time, he was full of confidence, and his style changed from the negative downturn before entering Shu. "I have a thousand songs and poems, Mobishan Yueluo Xingdou. Unfolding long doubts about thunder and lightning, I am afraid that dragons and snakes will go. Banbambo is present at the time, and there are no loose flowers on his sleeves." The poems are bright in color and tone. The boldness revealed by Li Bai's momentum was "Looking up to the sky and laughing and going out, how are we from Penghao".

  But Wei Zhuang could never forget the old Tang. Zhu Quanzhong killed the emperor and usurped it. The 70-year-old Wei Zhuang returned to Wang Jianchen's "Answer to Wang Zongwan's Book for the Shu Gaozu". The full text is neither humble nor overbearing. Among them, "My family has received grace from the Lord for years" and "The dog and horse can still repay the Lord, but the courtier of the human being". There is a sincere and strong feeling of gratitude between the lines. It is not only for Wang Jian, but also reveals that Wei Zhuang was in the Tang Dynasty. The mood of the bereaved minister.

  Although he gained personal apology in Shu in his later years, the great Tang Dynasty has passed, and the bitterness and suffering of untimely birth, the helplessness and sadness of leaving his hometown still haunt Wei Zhuang's heart. "But Jun believes me how melancholy, I only wish Tao Tao would not wake up", his broad-mindedness was somewhat helpless. This deep sense of disillusionment and unspeakable concealment is tortuously manifested in his parting emotions: "When will we join hands in Chang'an" ("Huanxisha"), "Now we are all strangers" ("Lotus Leaf Cup") , "Gu Guoyin Shu Ge" ("Qing Ping Le"), "Hate hatred for Canhui, recalling the monarch not knowing" ("Buddha Man"). Being immersed in the pain of such longing, Wei Zhuang could hardly extricate himself and surpass. He sighed with emotion: "The melancholy jade cage parrot, single habitat without a companion" ("Returning to the Country"). Although the parrot is in the jade cage, there is no worries about food, no wind and rain, but lonely and lost the vast sky. How similar is this to the high position in Qian Shu? "Golden Jade, convey my thoughts for me to fly south." "Leaning on Boshan and sighing, tears dripping on his wrists." He who often sighed and shed tears by the incense burner, could only hope that the blue bird would convey his thoughts about the passing age.

  Wei Zhuang has left an excellent poem "Lying Lying": "Who knows that lying idle is not sick or sleeping. The hand falls from the carved fan, and the head will be turned." At the last moment of life, what he thought of was not the ambition of the past. With lofty ambition, the nostalgic eyes focused on the daily trivial things around him, quite a little bit of the leftover world to see through the red. "Tang Poetry Chronicle" records the scene at the time: "Zhiruo "Xian Lai":'Who knows the meaning of lying idle, neither sick nor sleep.' And' the hand falls from the carved fan, the head is left. It is unknown, and later he recites Zimei's poem: "At dusk in the village of Baisha Cuizhujiang, send Chaimen moonlight new" endlessly. He died at Hualinfang and was buried in Baisha. "It was the third year of the former Shu Wucheng period ( 910), at the age of 75.

  Feelings of troubled times gradually come into poetry

  Wei Zhuang also played a positive role in the development of Shu culture. Because he served as Tang's predecessor and selected the survivors, when he entered Shu, many celebrities came back together, such as Mao Wenxi and Niu Qiao, who entered Shu at the same time.

  Wei Zhuang admired Du Fu in particular, and was the first person to build a thatched cottage for Du Fu. In the second year after arriving in Shu, he found the old site where Du Fu had lived in Huanhua Creek. He saw that there was no one inhabited for a long time, and the land was overgrown with grass. Fortunately, the pillars were still there. So he asked someone to shovel the grass to repair the house. A new hut was almost built. From the house to the people, after more than 100 years of ups and downs, the poet's heart responds back and forth, as if they meet each other, he never forgets Du Fu's poems before he died. Wei Zhuang's younger brother Wei Acheng compiled his poems into a collection and named it "Huanhuaxi".

  In the last ten years of Wei Zhuang, the stable and prosperous life in Shu Zhong comforted the wandering soul. He no longer regards poems as a tool for "speaking aspirations", but more to express inner and delicate emotions, and the focus of his creation has also shifted from a large number of "speaking aspirations" poems in the early stage to creating words that should be used to entertain people.

  Wei Zhuang traveled to many beautiful mountains and scenic spots in the middle of Shu. "Traveling Niu Shou Mountain": "The cow head sees the crane forest, and the ladder runs around the You Cen. Outside the floating mountains in spring, Tianhe stays in the temple. There is no daylight in the light, and there is gold in the cloth. No work. Crazy song is old, I can't help it back." The word "floating" vividly depicts the splendid spring scenery of Niushou Mountain, which shows Wei Zhuang's love for spring scenery. "Gift to Emei Mountain to play the piano Li Chushi": "There is a piano player under Emei Mountain, like a drunk and madman. Why don't you see my eyes turn blue, I haven't seen my body white. The vast world is homeless, and there is a sad cloud of autumn blue. The pot is in the pot. The sun and the moon are drunk, and the world is long and narrow. The Jin dynasty's uncle and the old acquaintance, the Shujun Wenjun came to know. Later, he often builds who he is, and gives me chapters to carve..." The unique scenery in Shu is hand-picked, and he can be seen He is very familiar and fond of Shu culture. "Bong He Zuo Si Lang's sense of darkness in spring is a chapter": "Cai Xi New Year is late spring, the setting sun sings and kills the people who rely on the building. The wind of Jinjiang is scattered and the rain is falling, the flower market is fragrant and the desert is dusty. Today is chasing the Wuxia dream, a teenager should meet Luochuan God. Sometimes he suffers from amorous diseases, it is not Song Yushen before his death." The first sentence "only the new spring" and "it is late spring" set off the title of "the darkness of spring things", followed by the "set sun" to write "the dark things of spring". degree". The poet's heart-hearted feelings and passionate brushstrokes make Jinjiang's late spring scenery vivid.

  Following his own heart and emotions, Wei Zhuang has created a large number of "family poems" that give people a sense of mundaneity and crystal clearness. For example, "Ji Ren Raising Silkworms": "In the past, the housewife loved to laugh at silkworms, but today she is hard at raising silkworms by herself. I still have no worries about Luo and Qi, and the girl first explained weaving mulberry baskets." The content of the poem is nothing more than housework and farming. Having nothing to do with national affairs, he slowly changed from a Confucian scholar who cared about national affairs to an idle literati. Another example is "A Letter to Cui Xiucai in the Spring and Evening of the Friend": "Half-covered Zhumen, the day is long, the evening breeze is light and the plum makeup. I don't know the limit of the fragrance of the grass, I only blame the tourists for thinking and hurting. I saw a parrot out of the valley in early spring, and I was shocked. New Xia Yanchaoliang. Reunion can only rely on wine, a wild song into the drunk country." The first couplet of poems describes the leisurely life of long day and quiet people. In the poem, the words "caused to see" and "already startled" are extremely emotional, easy to grow old, time is swift, and the passing of years is extremely sad.

  Wei Zhuang and Diqian Zeng Na Yiji, the two have a deep relationship. After entering Shu, Wei Zhuang wrote "Mourning the Dead" to mourn her: "The Phoenix is ​​not to be found when he goes to Luan. The fairy roads of ten continents are rich in color. If there is no girl, the flower should grow old, because there is a beautiful moon and the moon is easy to sink. How can bamboo leaves disappear. Hate, the lilac is empty and concentric. The Xiangjiang River is vast and far-reaching, where can Acacia make Shun Qin." The lovesickness between men and women is described in delicate language, lingering and soft. The whole poem is watered from the beginning to the end is the sadness of the loss of the lover, and the hard to dismiss. This kind of reminiscences occupies an important position in Wei Zhuang's Shuzhong Ci, and can be called the most artistic work in his poetry. The most praised is "Yejinmen" (two poems): "I can't bear to write about the monarch when I sleep. The courtyard is full of flowers and spring is silent, and the heart is broken and the grass is green." Spring. The night cold palace leaks forever, the dream of the king's grace. Lying thinking, things are secretly ecstasy. Luo clothes are wet, the red robe has screaming marks. The singing is separated from the heavy blows. Around the pavilion, the grass is green, and the long gate is leaning. Love stands, and the palace desires dusk.” In addition, "Singing alone", "Remorse", "Soul", "Old Residence", and "Gift to Jiren" all give people a touching and sad beauty.