August 1st Army Day before the founding of New China

▲The article "We Can Overcome Difficulties" was published in "People's Daily" on August 1, 1949.

▼The People's Daily on August 2 reported in detail the celebration of the Army Day before.

  Zheng Xuefu

  On August 1, 1949, Peiping ushered in the first army building day of the Chinese People's Liberation Army after the peaceful liberation. The people of Beiping City, the garrison and all walks of life organized various and colorful activities to celebrate the 22nd anniversary of the People's Liberation Army.

  Modified by Mao Zedong

  Xinhua News Agency Editorial

  On July 31, 1949, the editorial manuscript written by Xinhua News Agency to commemorate the 22nd anniversary of the founding of the Chinese People's Liberation Army was submitted to Chairman Mao Zedong for review. Mao Zedong added three paragraphs to the manuscript: 1. The Nanchang Uprising and many uprisings throughout the country at that time were decided by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China... 2. The composition of this army is workers, peasants and revolutionary intellectuals... 3. Now the whole country The working people and revolutionary intellectuals deeply trust the Communist Party and the People's Liberation Army.

  Mao Zedong pointed out that the 22-year People's War of Liberation has taught us that in any region where the enemy is driven out to establish people's power, it will inevitably go through a difficult period. This difficulty can be overcome, but the necessary time and hard work are required. In some places, a few months or a year is enough, and in some places, it takes two, three, or even more time before the military, political, economic, and cultural tasks can be completely separated from the enemy’s work. The old chaotic track has completely embarked on a new track of consolidation and development. Mao Zedong said that we can overcome difficulties, and we are not afraid of any difficulties. The 22-year history of the People’s Liberation Army has given us such experience and confidence that the Communist Party, the People’s Liberation Army and the people of the whole country need to understand the difficulties they have encountered. We can achieve our goals by resolutely implementing the fundamental policies to overcome difficulties. Mao Zedong also changed the original title "In Commemoration of the Founding of the Chinese People's Liberation Army" to "We Can Overcome Difficulties" (Volume 5 of Collected Works of Mao Zedong).

  "People's Daily" published this editorial on the first page of the headline on August 1, 1949. The editorial reviewed the struggle of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army over the past 22 years and pointed out: First, the People’s Liberation Army is an army under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, the advanced party of the proletariat in modern China. Second, the People's Liberation Army is an army with a mindset and lofty ideals. Third, the People's Liberation Army is a highly centralized and disciplined army based on democracy. These three characteristics are the results achieved by the leadership of Comrade Mao Zedong's political and military lines in the People's Liberation Army.

  Garrison troops flag parade

  To celebrate the August 1st Army Day, on August 1st, the troops under the North China Military Region held a flag-giving ceremony and celebration at the station. All units in Peking held a flag-giving ceremony from August 1st to 3rd. The head of the North China Military Region represented the Chinese People's Revolutionary Military Commission to award the flag and inspect the troops.

  On the morning of August 1, the independent 208th Division of the Pingjin Garrison Command of the North China Military Region held a celebration of "August 1st" and a flag-granting parade. The commander of the North China Military Region Nie Rongzhen gave a flag and gave a military parade. In the military music of "The March of the People's Liberation Army," he awarded four military flags to the division and the heads of the regiments to which he belonged. Then a solemn military parade was held, and all the officers and men were full of spirit and pride. They were dressed in green military uniforms and steel helmets. The helmets were studded with a five-star military emblem with a red gold border. Most of the weapons they carried were captured by the enemy. They walked across the parade stand neatly and vigorously, and Nie Rongzhen delivered a passionate speech at the ceremony. He said that in the face of difficulties and setbacks, we "are in unison, with only one strong belief and determination: follow Chairman Mao!" At this time, the audience thunderous and prolonged applause. Under the leadership of the division political commissar Su Qisheng, all commanders and fighters solemnly swore an oath to express the People's Liberation Army's firm determination and strong confidence in defending the motherland and people.

  The Independent 207th Division of the Pingjin Garrison Headquarters of the North China Military Region also held a solemn flag-granting parade at Xiyuan Airport in Beiping, presided over by Luo Ruiqing, director of the Political Department of the North China Military Region. A huge portrait of Chairman Mao Zedong and Commander-in-Chief Zhu De hung high on the parade stage, and a Chinese People’s Liberation Army flag was erected on the stage. Huge slogans hung on both sides of the platform, “The People’s Liberation Army is always a strong combat team” and “for construction Work hard to standardize and modernize the National Defense Forces." Luo Ruiqing gave the flag and spoke to all officers and soldiers, and the division political commissar Zou Yan led the division to take an oath.

  More than 2,000 employees of the Ministry of Railways of the Military Commission also held a celebration meeting in the auditorium of the Ministry of Railways on August 1.

  Organizing condolences from all walks of life

  On August 1, 1949, democratic parties and non-party democrats jointly called the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China to celebrate the August 1st Army Day, expressing their willingness to strengthen unity, promote unification, and learn from the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the People's Liberation Army. The congratulatory message said: "This true people's revolutionary force, thanks to the correct leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, has undergone 22 years of arduous training, and has grown strong today. It is not only a powerful pillar of Chinese people's democracy, but also a lasting peace in the world. An important guarantee for this."

  The North China People's Government sent a congratulatory message to Commander-in-Chief Zhu De, Deputy Commander-in-Chief Peng Dehuai, and all commanders and soldiers of the People's Liberation Army. The congratulatory message said: "Looking back, the People’s Liberation Army has experienced great revolutionary victories since its establishment, and at the same time experienced serious revolutionary difficulties. In the test and exercise of fire and blood, it was finally built into an invincible and invincible force. The iron team."

  The All-China Federation of Trade Unions issued a call to workers all over the country to carry out the August 1st Army Day to condole the troops. Industry democrats Sun Qimeng, Yan Baohang, and Beiping city industrial and commercial figures Liu Yifeng, Fu Huating, Chen Yintang, Ling Qijun, Sun Fuling, etc. donated 659,000 yuan. Workers from the Workers’ Union of the Fourth Sewing Department of Beiping Bedding Factory donated 17,900 yuan. The Peking Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of China and the People’s Government of Peiping City hosted martyrs, military members and honorary soldiers living in Peking at the National Theater and Dahua Theater respectively. Theaters in Peking will also be open to troops free of charge on August 1.

  At 7 pm on August 1, the People's Government of Beiping City held a party to celebrate the "August 1st" in the Concert Hall of Zhongshan Park. More than 3,500 people attended. Mayor Ye Jianying reported on the 22-year history and experience of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, followed by a performance by the People’s Art Troupe, and finally the Soviet film "Iron Will" was screened.

  Ten thousand people visit the photo exhibition of heroes' historical sites

  The North China Pictorial Press of the Political Department of the North China Military Region of the Chinese People's Liberation Army held a photo exhibition of historical relics of the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and the People's Liberation War in Zhongshan Park of Beiping from August 1 to 10, 1949.

  According to the People's Daily on August 2, 1949, the photo exhibition is divided into four parts: The first part is the brilliant record of the North China Field Army and its predecessor, the Eighth Route Army. During the War of Resistance Against Japan, the 115th Division of the Eighth Route Army, led by the division political commissar Nie Rongzhen, advanced into Wutai Mountain and established the Jinchaji Anti-Japanese Base. In the three-year Liberation War, the North China Military Region field army achieved annihilation of 1.01 million at the cost of nearly 240,000 casualties. Brilliant victory. As of February 1949, the entire army was reorganized, and the North China Military Region had more than 270,000 field troops, under its jurisdiction 3 field regiments and 11 armies. In the photo, the soldiers fought in the mountains and the sky, crossing the wilderness, wading through the ice river, erecting the ladder, and climbing the city bravely. A photo is a battle scene.

  The second part is the militia and the Eighth Route Army fighting side by side. The photo shows the battle story of the militias in cooperation with the Eighth Route Army, carrying rolling logs, cutting grass men, demolishing bridges, cutting electric wires, turning over railroad tracks, blowing up fortresses, creating famous landmine warfare and tunnel warfare, and establishing the Baiyangdian Water Parade Team-Yanling Team .

  The third part is about military and civilian fish water conditions, showing how the Eighth Route Army organizes and trains militias to help the people build houses, build dikes, flood prevention, drought resistance and other production and life scenes. There are also pictures showing workers and farmers actively supporting the front line, showing that the soldiers and civilians are a victory. Of this.

  The fourth part is the display of trophies, displaying American-made bazookas, machine guns, howitzers, motorcycles, tanks, planes, and rifles.

  The vivid picture exhibition of heroes' historical relics attracted tens of thousands of visitors, and on the first day alone, the number of visitors reached more than 12,000.

  Picture Material/Visual China

  Further reading

  How was the August 1st Army Banner born?

  Ding Lu

  During the Nanchang Uprising in 1927, the uprising troops played a red flag. After the "August 7th Meeting" decided to launch the Autumn Harvest Uprising, the uprising troops were unified as the "First Division of the First Army of the Workers and Peasants Revolutionary Army", and the flag of the Workers and Peasants Revolutionary Army was designed: The flag is red, symbolizing the revolution; in the center of the military flag is a white five-pointed star, representing the leadership of the Communist Party of China, and the crossed sickle and axe embedded in the star indicate the close unity of the workers and peasants; The words "First Division of the First Army".

  After the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War, the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army no longer fought the unified flag, and each base area and unit made their own flags. After the victory of the War of Resistance Against Japan, the People's Revolutionary Armed Forces led by the Communist Party of China was reorganized into the "Chinese People's Liberation Army", and there was no unified military standard at that time.

  In 1948, when the leaders of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army Headquarters were discussing the normalization of the military in Xibaipo, they raised the issue of unifying the military flag, and it was determined that Zhou Enlai, vice chairman of the Military Commission, would preside over the design of the military flag. After more than three months of solicitation, the design team pre-selected more than 30 plans to make sample flags and sent them to the central leadership for approval. Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De and other leading comrades all agreed that the military flag had a red background and a five-pointed star. Mao Zedong proposed: "There must be the word'August 1'on the military flag, indicating that the Nanchang Uprising was the day when the army was founded."

  At the end of 1948, when Mao Zedong watched the special issue of "Avant-Garde", he was very interested in the five-star and "August One" logo on the cover of the red flag and provided it to the military flag design team. Based on this opinion, the design team designed three plans, the first of which was The five-pointed star is placed in the upper left corner, and the right side of the five-pointed star is the "August One" logo. After the three plans were submitted to the Central Secretariat for deliberation, the opinions of representatives from all walks of life were extensively solicited, and everyone preferred the first plan. Zhou Enlai submitted this plan to the Second Plenary Session of the Seventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held on March 5, 1949 for consideration. On March 13, the meeting passed the "Resolution on Military Standards" drafted by Mao Zedong. The "Resolution" clearly stated: "The Chinese People's Liberation Army military standard should be a red background with a five-pointed star and the word "August One"."

  At the preparatory meeting of the New Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference that opened on June 15 that year, in the name of "Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Military Committee of the Chinese People’s Revolution, Zhu De, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, and Peng Dehuai, Vice Chairmen", an order was issued to "Promulgate the Pattern of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Flag and Emblem" The Chinese People’s Liberation Army military flag style is stipulated as follows: the flag has a red background, a rectangular shape, and the horizontal and vertical dimensions are 5:4. The top of the flagpole is decorated with a golden five-pointed star and the word "August One", referred to as the "August One Army Banner".