Some time ago, Du Fu, a great poet in the Tang Dynasty, once again "popped overseas". A British BBC documentary about Du Fu, "Du Fu: The Greatest Poet in China", let people all over the world fight against the "epidemic" and know Du Fu's greatness. Life. Through the documentary, Du Fu's broad-mindedness of "getting thousands of houses in Guangsha and sheltering all the world's cold men" will resonate with people who are suffering from the epidemic. Some netizens abroad also commented: "To heal our broken world, unite together, please read Du Fu's poems, which is good for the world."
Looking back at Du Fu's life and following his footsteps will enlighten people a lot. Du Fu lived in abundance throughout his life, and experienced the winds and frosts of the world. In the course of his 58-year-old life, he left the most important years in the Southwest. He came to Chengdu at the end of 759 and built a drafting hall in Chengdu in the spring of 760. He was temporarily invited to live in Jiangling by his brother Du Guan in 768. Du Fu spent eight years in Shuzhong. In these eight years, the years in the thatched cottage in Chengdu have been a quiet and peaceful time in Du Fu's life. He lived intermittently in Chengdu Caotang for about four years, but left more than 240 immortal poems. "The Thatched Cottage Was Broken by the Autumn Wind" (there is a well-known poem "Where there are thousands of houses in the Guangsha, and the world is full of people who live in the world") was written during this period. Modern poet and famous scholar Feng Zhi commented on the cottage: "When people mention Du Fu, they can ignore Du Fu's birthplace and death, but they can never forget the Chengdu cottage."
Du Fu's open-mindedness in the face of the plight also made the people living in the house during the epidemic have many emotions.
Similarly, because of the charm of Du Fu's poetry, after his death, generations of poets regarded his cottage as a "sacred place". His time in Chengdu's cottage was finally preserved through thousands of years. Although today's thatched cottage is not the one that Du Fu had originally lived in, through his immortal poems, people can still touch on the details of the poet's life in that year.
"Crowdfunding" set up a cottage in Chengdu
Du Fu (712-770), Zizi, born in Xiangyang, Henan, was born in Gong County, Henan. Because he lived near Shaolin in the south of the city in Chang'an for a time, claiming to be Shaolin Ye Lao, he was recommended as a staff officer and prosecutor in the Chengdu City, and he was later called Du Shaoling and Du Gong Department.
Du Fu was famous and grew up in the family of "Feng Confucianists". His grandfather Du Shenyan was a famous poet at that time. His father Du Xian had served as the county magistrate of Yanzhou Sima and Fengtian. It can be said that in such an environment, Du Fu had a different vision since he was a child, and also laid a solid literary foundation. When Du Fu was a child, he saw Gongsun Auntie dancing sword dance in Yuncheng, Henan. At the age of fourteen or five, Du Fu, who was already a poet, came to Luoyang and was introduced to become a guest of Qi Wang Li Fan... Such a trajectory, Du Fu's career path will be extremely eye-catching. It is a pity that Du Fu did not inherit the cell of being an official, nor did he have the ability to do business. The decline of the National Games (the chaos of Anshi) and his own compassionate character finally made him a poet who was worried about the country and the people and was in despair.
Du Fu’s adult experience can be divided into four periods: First, Xuanzong’s 19th year from Kaiyuan to Tianbao’s four-year roaming period (731-745). At this time, Du Fu was full of vigour and vitality, although the first examination in 735 was not In the middle, but still unable to conceal his ambition, when he went to Yanzhou where his father Du Xian was playing, he wrote the magnificent "Wang Yue". During this period, he became close to Li Bai and Gao Shi;
2. Tianbao's five years to Tianbao's fourteenth year (746-755). During this period, Du Fu lived in Chang'an only to gain credit for his achievements. However, at this time, Xuanzong appointed Li Linfu and Yang Guozhong as phases, making it impossible for a large number of people of integrity Showing his talents, it was not until a month before An Shi’s rebellion that Du Fu, who had been trapped in Chang’an for 10 years, was given a small military post. It was also during this period that Du Fu’s poetic style turned to realism and set his sights on ordinary 3. The short official career period (756-759) during the reign of Tang Suzong (756-759). At this time, the Tang dynasty suffered from the trauma of war and was devastated. Due to his outspoken admonitions, he was demoted to Huazhou Sigong to join the army (Huazhou is now Huaxian, Shaanxi, Sigong to join the army as a small officer in charge of officials, exams, sacrifices, etc.). Du Fu himself resigned from his office after being discouraged. Cut off the idea of official career, he started the wandering road from Huazhou to Qinzhou (Tianshui, Gansu), from Qinzhou to Tonggu (Chengxian, Gansu), and then from Tonggu to Chengdu. Du Fu, with his family and children, climbed over the mountains and the mountains and experienced the sufferings of the world;
4. During the wandering southwestern period (760-770) from the first year of Suzong's first year to the year of Daizong (760-770), in the southwestern region, Du Fu ushered in the rare stability in his life. , Wrote many classic poems.
As can be seen from the above experience, Du Fu's life is full of twists and turns. Having lived in Chang'an for 10 years, Du Fu had no official position, and his life was relatively limited. He lived without a fixed place, and his life was barely maintained. He had no money to buy a house at all. After Du Fu resigned, his life was even more embarrassing. On the way from Tonggu to Chengdu, because he had no food at home, Du Fu, who was nearly 50 years old, even had to pick up the chestnuts in the mountains to maintain his livelihood. Random hair hangs over his ears. The year-old picking up the chestnuts with the sniping man, in the cold valley of the valley, ""Tonggu Qige").
At the end of the second year of Tang Suzong Qianyuan (759), Du Fu came to Chengdu and lived in a temple in Huanhuaxi, Xijiao. The beautiful scenery deeply attracted the poets. He wrote, "The west end of Huanhuaxi River is water, and the owner is Bulintangyou." He didn't live long in the temple, so he thought about building a grass hut, hoping to get a shelter. In the spring of the first year (760) of the first year of Tang Suzong, Du Fu found a wasteland by the Huanhua Creek and planned to build a cottage. He first opened up an acre of land, built a hut under a big tree, and got the prototype of the later thatched cottage. Although it was a few thatched houses, it was not easy for Du Fu who lived in poverty. So, how did Du Fu build the drafting hall?
According to Du Fu's situation at that time, wanting to build a house is like a dream. Fortunately, Du Fu had many enthusiastic friends. For example, Gao Shi and Yan Wu were all officials in the DPRK and Central China. Only then could Du Fu realize his dream of building a thatched cottage.
In addition to these old friends, in the spring of the first year of Tang Suzong (760) in the first year (760), when Du Fu built the thatched cottage, his cousin Wang Fifteen went out to visit him in Chengdu City and sent him funds to build a house. Du Fu wrote a poem that recorded the scene at that time: "Worry my camp Mao Dong, carrying money across the Yeqiao. His cousin in his hometown, he went to Mo Ciyao" ("Wang Shiming's Sima Brother Goes to Guo Xiang to Visit the Cao Tang in the Camp of the 15th").
As a famous prestigious poet at the time, Du Fu's fame earned a lot of help. On the one hand, Du Fu raised funds through friends to build a cottage, while on the other hand he wrote poems to seek saplings from friends everywhere. His poems and writings of this period faithfully recorded the process of building that cottage. For example, he asked Xiao Shi to send 100 peach saplings to Huanhua Village before spring, "Feng Qi peach planted 100, before spring to send Huanhua Village" ("Xiao Baming Mansion Seeking Peach Planting"); Mianzhu was produced in Han In Ziyan Mountain of Mianzhu County, Zhou, Du Fu asked Mianzhu County of Mianzhu County from Wei Xu who had made Mianzhu Orders. "Hua Xuan is very kind when he arrived, and the Mianzhu Pavilion came out of the county. There is no such thing in front of Jiang Shangshe, fortunate to share the green waves." ("Finding Mianzhu from Wei Erming's Mansion"); He asked He Yong to cross the alder saplings in Shu. He also walked through the stalagmite street and asked the gardener Xu Qing for fruit seedlings in the Orchard Square. Plant, don't ask about green plum and yellow plum" ("Xu Qing Qing for fruit planting"); he asked Wei Ban for pine saplings, "Fall out of non-beech willows, green and immortal Qi Yangmei. Want to save the old millennium meaning, to find Frost roots count inches planting" ("By Wei Shaofu class looking for pine trees planting").
After two or three months of construction, the cottage was inaugurated in the late spring of 760. "The back of Guo Tang is shaded by the white grass, and the edge will make the road ripen over the green suburbs. Alder forest hinders the sun and leaves, cage bamboo and smoke drops" ("Tang Cheng"). According to the descriptions of Du Fu’s many poems, people can probably know the scenery around the thatched cottage: the back of the thatched cottage faces Chengdu City and is located on the north of Baihuatan (“Wanliqiao West House, Baihuatan Beizhuang”), on the west of Wanliqiao and Huanhuaxi (“Wanli A thatched cottage in the west of the bridge, the water in Baihuatan is the waves"), near the Jinjiang River ("Jinglu Jinshuibian"), the northwest can see the snow-covered Xiling on the top of the mountain all year round ("window contains Xiling Qianqiu snow").
"The old man confessed to Lumi, the neighbor and the garden vegetables" ("Gift from the King"). In this way, with the help of friends and family, Du Fu's cottage life began.
It is worth mentioning that, one year after the construction of the cottage, in December of the second year of the Yuan Dynasty (761), Yan Wu was appointed as the Yin and Yushi Doctor of the Chengdu Prefecture, and led the army to resist the Tubo attack on the Tang Dynasty. The arrival of Yan Wu provided Du Fu with more material and spiritual help. In July 762, Yan Wu was recalled to Beijing, but at this time, Du Fu's other friend Gao Shidai replaced Chengdu Yin, which also brought a bit of hilarity to Cao Tang.
"Famous Neighbor" Huang Siniang
In the suburbs of Chengdu at that time, the cottage was sparsely populated, and only eight or nine families lived nearby. Although life was inconvenient, it was in line with Du Fu's state of mind not to be secular or fashionable. Interestingly, in order to make a living, Du Fu also opened a medicine garden in front of the thatched cottage. He is better known as the "pharmaceutical country". He planted cloves, gardenia, cassia and other herbs in the fields, and sometimes he also went over the mountains to gather herbs. For example, he has poems such as "Chong Peng Shi Cheng Dong, Cai Yao Shan Bei Gu", "Move the Ship to the Main Temple, and Wash Huan Hua Xi".
Du Fu was very busy. Under his diligent work, the thatched cottage expanded around. There was a water fence overlooking the hut. Four beloved pine trees were planted in front of the hall. A small case of "Wu La Pi" wrapped up).
The area of thatched cottage in Chengdu was not large at first, only one acre of land. Du Fu made it very clear in his poem "Ji Jiang Jiang Cao Tang": "The first acre of Zhumao is spread across a wide area." With the continuous construction of thatched cottages, the area has been continuously expanded. After planting peach trees, the number of thatched cottages increased from one acre to five acres; after the peach forest was built, bamboo forests and alder forests were constructed. The poem says: "We have heard about the three-year-old alder, and it is overcast with ten mu by the stream." That is, the alder forest covers an area of ten mu. So how big is the bamboo forest? There is one hectare. In his poem "Azalea", Du Fu said: "I traveled to Jincheng in the past and ended up at the Jinshui River. There are more than one hectare of bamboo, and the trees are towering."
Two years of work, and the construction of scattered pavilions by the clear stream, although simple, has begun to take shape. This made Du Fu feel relieved that he had been living in Chengdu for several years, and finally had a house of his own in Chengdu, a living space where the family can gather together. Although life is hard, it is also happy.
The cottage is surrounded by idyllic scenery, beautiful scenery, and very good ecological environment. Du Fu likes the time here very much. "Willow branches are weak, loquat is opposite to incense. Cormorants in western sunshine, sun wings full of fish beams" ("Tian She"); the clear huanhua stream flows through the winding grass windingly, and the summer village is very quiet , "Qingjiang River Holds the Village Stream, Changxia River Village Things Quiet" ("Jiangcun"); Yu'er cruising, the swallows fluttering, "Drizzling fish, the breeze swallows obliquely" (one of "Water Threshold Heart") ; The swallows on the beam and the sand gulls in the water are free, "Go and come to Liang Shangyan, go on a blind date into the water gull" ("Jiang Village").
Not only the scenery is beautiful, but the life here is also full of interest. In front of the cottage, there is Huanhua Stream, which became Du Fu's fun. Du Fu will take the whole family on a boat out of the water threshold, go boating on the river, and watch the scenery on both sides of the river, while drinking tea and wine. In Qilu "Into the Boat", he depicts the whole family on the boating river.
Du Fu seemed to be used to this kind of life. After the cottage was repaired, he had a very close relationship with his neighbors. Sometimes, the enthusiastic farmer will also pull Du Fu into the door to stay and drink, ""Xiu" follows the spring breeze, and the village will spend the willow. Tian Weng presses the company day and invites me to taste the spring wine" ("Tianfu Mud Drinking Beautiful Yan Chengcheng" ); Sometimes, a farmer will send a large basket of cherries: "The cherries of Xishu are also red, and the savages give a gift to Yunyun" ("The Savage Sends Zhu Ying").
The two neighbors in the south and north of the cottage, he called the neighbor in the south as "Mr. Jinli" in "Southern". He wrote: "Mr. Jinli is a black towel, and the garden is not completely poor. Guests and children are happy, and they have to get rid of birds and birds." This neighbor is not an idle person. The neighbor to the north is a retired county magistrate and a gentleman. "How can the Ming government be full, hide it and go to work. Buy money for wild bamboos for money, and Baigao Jianggao for love. Jinshan Jane who loves wine, can he poetry He Shui Cao" ("Northern Neighborhood"). It seems that this northern neighbor, like Du Fu, loves drinking and can write poetry.
With the spread of "The Seven Sentences on the Riverbank", Huang Siniang also became Du Fu's most famous neighbor: "Huang Siniang's home is full of flowers, and thousands of flowers are low on the branches. Liulian plays with butterflies and dances freely. Just right." Not far from the cottage, there was a woman named Huang Siniang. When spring came, her home was full of flowers, and the singing and dancing dances were a beautiful picture.
Thatched cottage that was broken by the autumn wind
As a well-known poet at the time, the Caotang naturally required the visit of literati Mo Ke. Every time a friend visits, Du Fu is very happy.
When the news of Du Fu's building of thatched cottage in Chengdu came out, the Shu Chinese also came here. Among them is a painter named Wei Yan, who is good at painting horses. When he came to the cottage, he painted two horses on the newly built white wall. Du Fu wrote "Wei Yan draws a horse song on the wall" to write: "Wei Hou said goodbye to me, knowing that my pitiful man is invincible. The play of the bald pen sweeps the 骅骝, and he sees Kirin out of the east wall. Hee, sit and watch thousands of miles as a frost hoof. Shi Wei'an is really like this, and the same life and death with people."
However, the most embarrassing thing is that the guests came to have no money to entertain. They had to pick up some vegetables and vegetables in the reserved area at home and eat a simple meal. That's all. "There is a visitor to Mao Yu, Hu'er Zhengge towel. Self-hoeing sparse vegetable field, Xiao picking is love" ("Youke").
When Yan Wu was doing Chengdu Yin, he often took a small group of people, went to the suburbs, came to Huanhua Creek, visited Du Fu, and sometimes brought wine and fine dishes together with Du Fu; in 762, Gao Shi replaced Chengdu Yin, Gao Shi often Bringing wine to the Dutang to visit Du Fu, Du Fu felt ashamed that he had no fresh vegetables to entertain, so he had to persuade Gao Shiduo to drink more.
Du Fu ended his life of migration in the thatched cottage in Chengdu. He left the central plains of Aihong, and there was an idyllic beauty in front of him. After years of hard work and sorrow, he was temporarily rested. However, Du Fu, who did not dare to forget the country, had endless worries about the country in his bones, and he did not forget the people in exile who had nowhere to settle down.
In August 761, Du Fu’s thatched cottage was attacked by wind and rain. First, the thatch on the roof of the thatched cottage was blown down by the wind. Heavy rain followed, and the interior was messy. The poet couldn't sleep at night and was filled with emotions. He wrote the most touching "The Cabana Was Broken by the Autumn Wind":
In August, the high winds and angers rolled over the house, and Mao Fei crossed the river. The tall one hangs a long tree tip (juàn, winding), and the lower one drifts to Shentangao. ...Buqu has been cold for many years, and Jiaoer's crooked feet are cracking. The bedside room was leaking and there was no dry place. Since the chaos and less sleep, why get wet in the long night? Thousands of rooms are built in Guangsha, and all the cold men in the world are happy, and the wind and rain will not move. Alas! When did you suddenly see this house? Wulu alone is enough to be frozen and killed!
Although Du Fu wrote a few cottages, he expressed the feelings of worrying about the country and the people. After drifting away, the hut was finally built, but it was broken by the autumn wind. "The cloth quilt has been cold for many years, and Jiaoer is lying on the ground." If there is no experience of poor life, such a verse cannot be written. In August in Chengdu, the weather was not cold. It was because "the bedside house leaked no dry place, and the rainy feet were not cut off", so I felt cold. This coldness is not exactly the "coldness" of natural conditions, but Du Fu feels "disheartened" by the disorder of social reality. From the situation in front of him to the painful experiences since the Anshi chaos, from the stormy cottage to the frequent wars. Looking at the dilapidated home and looking back at the reality of "long night wet", how can we fall asleep? It is precisely because of the anxiety of the world that Du Fu has the lofty aspiration and broad mind to "have thousands of houses in Guangsha, and shelter all the world's cold men"
Died of illness on the Xiangjiang ship
In July of the first year (762) of the first year of Zong Baoying in the Tang Dynasty, Yan Wu was called into the DPRK. Du Fu saw him off and went to Mianzhou (now Mianyang, Sichuan) hundreds of miles away. When Yan Wugang left Sichuan, Chengdu Shaoyin and Yu Shixu knew that they would rebel in Chengdu. Du Fu was forced to stay in Mianzhou. He had to live in Zizhou (now Santai, Sichuan), and his wife remained in the Chengdu Caotang. Du Fu always remembered the thatched cottage by Huanhua Creek. Later, the mutiny was extinguished. In order to take his family to Zizhou, Du Fu returned to Chengdu. He was pleasantly surprised that the cottage was not damaged in the chaos. The spring of Baoying two years (763) ended the chaos of Anshi which lasted for seven or eight years. Du Fuyuan heard this news in Zizhou and was overjoyed. With mixed feelings, he wrote a famous poem: "Wen Guanjun Takes Henan and Hebei".
In the spring of the second year of Zong Guangde (764) of the Tang Dynasty, Yan Wu was again appointed as the envoy of Yin and Jiannan in Chengdu. Du Fu also returned to Chengdu in March. Yan Wuju recommended Du Fu as the staff member and prosecutor of the school's labor department. The name "Du Gong Ministry" also comes from this. Du Fu stayed in the Mufu in Chengdu for several months. Because he was not used to the life of the Mufu, he repeatedly asked to return to the Caotang, and finally Yan Wu allowed his request. Du Fu returned to the thatched cottage again, because it had been uninhabited for a long time, and it was already desolate. Du Fu, who was not afraid of hardship and hardship, started to clean up the mess. He dug a well to open up the ditch, re-care of the cottage, and the cottage returned to life again in late spring and early summer.
Du Fu's life was full of displacement, and his life in the thatched cottage in Chengdu was his relatively stable period, leaving more than 240 poems, such as "Spring Night Happy Rain", "Shu Xiang" and other famous articles, of which "thatched cottage is broken by the autumn wind" is even more ancient. Absolutely.
In the first month of the first year (765) of Zong Yongtai in the Tang Dynasty, Gao Shi died in Chang'an; in April, Yan Wu died suddenly. The death of Gao Shi made Du Fu sad; and the death of Yan Wu made Du Fu lose his backing. He had to lead his family out of the chapel in May and ride down the boat. "Five passengers in Shu County, live in Zizhou for one year" ("Go to Shu"), ended the first half of Du Fu's "wandering southwest".
In September 765, Du Fu's family arrived in Yun'an, unable to move forward due to illness, and moved to Kuizhou until the following spring when his illness eased. The Du Fu family lived in a humble house made of wooden boards on the hillside, and used bamboo tubes to lead the mountain spring to drink, making life more difficult. Having lived in Kuizhou for less than two years, Du Fu's creations are very rich, and he has more than 400 poems, accounting for two-sevenths of all his poems. At this time, Du Fu's health was getting worse and worse, and malaria, lung disease, diabetes, etc. continued to haunt him.
Due to the bad weather in Kuizhou, Du Fu left the gorge in the first month of the third year of the Dali calendar (768, another year of the Tang dynasty, and the first year of the year 766 in the year of Yongtai). Lived in Jiangling for half a year and moved to public security for several months. In the years that followed, Du Fu lived in no fixed place. The family lived on a flat boat, traveling between Yueyang, Changsha, Hengzhou, and Leiyang. Most of the time was spent on the ship. In the winter of the fifth year of the Chinese calendar (770), Du Fu died of a boat on the Xiangjiang River between Changsha and Yueyang at the age of 58. Before he died, his long poem "The Pillow Book in the Wind Ship" still focused on the country.
After Du Fu's death, because of his family's poverty, his family was unable to transport his coffin back to the ancestral tomb for burial, so he had to stop the coffin in Yueyang. After 43 years of Tang Xianzong Yuanhe eight years (813 years), his grandson Du Siye moved Du Fu’s body from Yueyang to Yanshi and was buried next to the tomb of Du Fuyan, the grandfather of Du Fu at the foot of Shouyang Mountain, Henan, and invited the poet Yuan Zhen Made an epitaph.
Throughout Du Fu's life, Du Fu was unfortunate and lucky. He spent most of his life in exile and displacement, but it was because of his weather and suffering that he suffered the "national break". His poems reflected the whole society in the 20 years before and after the Anshi Rebellion in the Tang Dynasty, which also made his poems affect many people. Has become a treasure in Chinese culture.
After Du Fu's death, his cottage was preserved through changes. In the pre-Shu period, the poet Wei Zhuang found the former home of the thatched cottage. During the Yuanfeng period of the Northern Song Dynasty (1078-1085), Chengdu’s prefect Lu Dafang rebuilt the hut at the former site of the thatched cottage, established a shrine, and engraved Du Shi on the monument. After that, the cottage was renovated many times, and finally formed the scale of today. Du Fu's helpless "home purchase" brought him a short and beautiful time, and the preserved thatched cottage became a wonderful place for future generations to pay tribute to and remember Du Fu.
Author: Huang Qiang