China's population birth rate hits record low in 2019
May 10 is Mother's Day. Xiao Ran, who has just been promoted to mother, is going to spend the first Mother's Day after being a mother in chaos. Xiao Ran hasn't slept for a whole few months, and the child often exhausts her for crying, changing diapers, feeding, etc. "When the mother doesn't need to sleep, she hangs on a breath of fairy air." She told reporters: "The child does feel gratified when he smiles, but most of the time it is painful."
Two years ago, a reporter from the China Youth Daily and China Youth Network interviewed Xiao Ran. Xiao Ran, who was still unmarried at the time, made it clear that she did not want to have children. But on the other hand, on the other hand, I just found a job, "I have been pregnant for three years, and my career has basically been abolished in these three years before and after giving birth." Moreover, Xiao Ran feels that her life is also very happy and full, and does not need children.
"Daughter desperately given birth must be protected in the future"
Last year, Xiao Ran was 30 years old, and he successfully obtained a marriage certificate in his first year. A few days after the wedding, Xiao Ran ’s husband showed her baby shoes that her mother-in-law had made. “The whole person was blinded, and I felt like I had been cheated on marriage.”
Xiao Ran and his wife rented a small house with one room and one hall in Shenzhen. After the child was born, Xiao Ran's parents and mother-in-law came to Shenzhen from their hometown. Now, Xiao Ran's family has a bed in the bedroom and a living room, and rents another house in the community for Xiao Ran's parents.
Xiao Ran admits that she understands that her unwillingness to have a baby is unlikely to be realized, but only wants to regenerate a few years later. Unexpectedly, Xiao Ran "stroke" by accident.
Xiao Ran's late pregnancy coincided with the outbreak of the New Coronary Pneumonia epidemic. The Shenzhen Maternal and Child Health Hospital she filed admitted a pregnant woman suspected of New Coronary Pneumonia during the outbreak (later tested negative by nucleic acid). Xiao Ran was afraid of being infected and was pregnant. In the later period, the filed hospital was replaced with the Longhua District Maternal and Child Health Hospital in Shenzhen, from a top three hospital to a top two hospital.
During the day, I went to the two hospitals to go through the transfer procedure. At night, when I returned home, Xiao Ran was still facing a reaction during the third trimester. As soon as I lay down, the things I ate during the day would flood my throat, and Xiao Ran would go over and over again. I vomited in the toilet. Afterwards, my throat broke and I couldn't sleep at night.
On March 9 this year, after about 12 hours of labor, Xiao Ran gave birth to a child. After the child was delivered, the placenta had not been discharged, so Xiao Ran experienced a manual peeling of the placenta, and the pain was so full of "pig calls" that she felt that the midwife had spent a century in her womb.
During this process, the child was carried to her by the midwife and asked her to confirm her gender. At this time, Xiao Ran was so painful that she was confused, and only felt that "the heart is very complicated and dare not look at it". After coming out of the delivery room, Xiao Ran's consciousness gradually became more sober. Looking at her daughter, she felt the difficulty of being a mother, and felt that "the daughter who is desperately born must protect her in the future, and no one can bully her." , I hope she can have a happy life. "
Chinese people are still married and educated
Xiao Ran's "fear of psychology" before giving birth is not uncommon among young people today. According to data from the National Bureau of Statistics, in 2019, China ’s annual birth population was 14.65 million, with a birth rate of 10.48 ‰, the lowest birth rate since 1949. According to public opinion, the decrease in birth rate is related to the "fear of fear" of young people.
Yang Juhua, a professor in the Department of Sociology of the Central University for Nationalities, told reporters that the primary reason for the decline in fertility in 2019 is that the number of women of 15-49 years of childbearing age has decreased by about 5 million, while the number of women of 20-29 years of golden childbearing age has decreased by about 6 million. The decrease in the female population of childbearing age will inevitably lead to a decrease in the birth population.
The birth time of women of childbearing age of 20-29 years was 1991-2000. Yang Juhua analyzed that, in addition to the strict family planning policy that was still implemented in China at that time, there were few children born. Since the 1980s, the gender imbalance of the Chinese birth population It is more serious (more men and fewer women), which is also a reason for the low number of women of childbearing age.
Yang Juhua said that since China's birth rate has rebounded slightly in 2016, 2019 will be the third consecutive year of decline and will continue to decline thereafter. However, Yang Juhua did not worry about it. She analyzed that in addition to the birth rate, she should also look at other data-the second child accounted for 57% of the birth population in 2019. "This shows that everyone's willingness to have a second child is still relatively optimistic." .
As for some remarks about "fear of marriage and fear of education" on the Internet, Yang Juhua believes that it is necessary to distinguish between universal will and individual will. According to her many years of research and analysis, field surveys, interviews and other experiences, the Chinese people still marry and marry, but the concept of marriage and childbirth has indeed changed. "In the past, there was the concept of" raising children and preventing old age ". In order to ensure the security of old age, there are often more children. Now China's social security system has covered the vast majority of the population of the country. The increase in the number of children will also reduce the number of children. "With the general improvement of Chinese education, especially the education level of women, marriage and childbirth after 30 years of age have become common in big cities such as Beijing and Shanghai. phenomenon.
In addition, Yang Juhua also said that people will have different ideas at different ages, and their ideas when they go to school may change with the changes in their experience after joining the work. This change may be due to themselves or the source. Pressure from society and family. Yang Juhua admitted that she used to feel free to live without a marriage while attending college, but now she thinks that getting married to form a family and raising a second child is a more ideal way of life.
Yang Juhua once conducted a preliminary survey on women who are not married or infertile. Except for individual active choices, most of them are forced. "The marriage market is actually very unfavorable for women. China's marriage market has" male high female low " Tradition, this is not only reflected in economic status, but also in age. If a woman misses the shortest optimal spouse age, the choice will be narrow. "
Be a better self in the process of raising children
Liang Zi was also a mother at the beginning of last year. She and her husband both came to Beijing from other places to go to university, and they left behind after graduation. Now, the young couple live in the rented house. Before asking the child, Liang Zi was also worried that the current conditions would not give the child a decent environment. Later, Liang Zi asked other mothers, and also checked some information on the Internet, thinking that it is no problem to provide children with basic life needs, "I do n’t have to pursue the best conditions and environment, but I must create healthy and happy children. Atmosphere. "
Unlike Xiao Ran, Liang Zi felt that although raising children was very hard, he felt more happy. Liang Zi experienced a severe pregnancy reaction early in her pregnancy. She wanted to vomit when eating and smelling. She couldn't sit still in the office and had to vomit frequently in the toilet. After the reaction in the first trimester passed, Liang Zi began to "revenge" to eat, leading to the detection of gestational diabetes during pregnancy, and he needed to go to the hospital to take a diet control course every week. The rice he usually ate was also weighed out first. The weight is accurate to grams.
By the expected date of delivery, Liang Zi had no signs of giving birth, so he went to the hospital to take medicine and oxytocin, and contracted for 4 days before giving birth. The process of actually giving birth to children lasted for 15 hours. Liang Zi "feeling like he was going to ache and" die ", and he really couldn't give birth."
However, when the child came out, Liang Zi's first reaction to seeing her child was "My son is too cute!" She told reporters, "Because it is a childbirth, he will feel that the child is actually working hard, and he is also suffering with you. It must be painful to drill his head out of such a hard bone. If you work hard together, you will feel better psychologically. "
Before giving birth, Liang Zi was a "net addicted girl" who was addicted to the glory of the king. He played for more than 3 hours every night, and sometimes he played until midnight. After having a child, "don't say it's the glory of the king, I don't even have time to look at the phone."
Liang Zi feels that the more important thing is a change in mentality, because he has more fun in his life, and he doesn't mind the game anymore. In Liang Zi ’s eyes, the child is amazing, “I will catch things today, and I will call my mom tomorrow, and I will be pleasantly surprised every day. And every change will make me think that my son is awesome. A very 'exaggerated' voice praises my son 'Wow! You are so powerful'! "
Liang Zi felt that the greatest sense of accomplishment in bringing a child lies in: "A person who is independent of you can grow up slowly with your upbringing. He is now a blank piece of paper, and his personality and values will have you in the future. Imprint, so you have to restrain yourself. The best education is that mom and dad must do well before they can influence their children through behaviors and become a better self in the process of raising children. "
In Liangzi's view, "Mother, this word is not like the traditional sense of giving only great, no regrets, more is to grow up with children."
China Youth Daily · China Youth Daily reporter Liu Changrong Source: China Youth Daily