The integration of national cold chain logistics: opening up the first-level cold chain in the county, the construction of the first kilometer is the key


  In the hot summer, "running goods", every second counts, and cold chain logistics is even more important.

  However, my country's cold chain market is developing rapidly and has a small volume, and there is still a huge market gap.

  "Including pharmaceutical cold chain logistics, the scale of my country's cold chain logistics is only 500 billion yuan. This market size is far from enough. According to my country's consumption volume, we predict that the domestic cold chain logistics market volume will reach 30,000 in the future. Compared with developed countries that implement the same standard, we still have room for improvement by 2-3 times." Zhao Xiaomin, an expert in express logistics, believes.

  Similarly, my country's cold chain logistics also faces some practical problems that need to be overcome.

Liu Haibo, the former president of CIMC Cold Chain Development Co., Ltd. and a doctor in refrigeration, believes that the "first mile" and "the last mile" are both problems that need to be solved.

  In order to speed up filling the shortcomings of logistics infrastructure, the National Development and Reform Commission recently issued a special central budget of 1.4 billion yuan for the construction of urban and rural cold chains and national logistics hubs in 2022 to increase cold chain logistics and upgrade logistics infrastructure.

  Since the State Council first issued the "14th Five-Year Plan for Cold Chain Logistics Development" in December 2021, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Transport, the National Railway Administration, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Commerce and other departments have successively issued documents to support the promotion of cold chain logistics. development and construction.

  Under the continuous release of favorable policies, combined with multiple factors such as epidemic catalysis, consumption upgrades, technological progress, and fresh food e-commerce development, my country's cold chain logistics has entered the eve of the outbreak.

  Analysis: The cold chain has entered the eve of the outbreak, and there will be at least ten billion-scale enterprises in the future

  Cold chain logistics refers to the freezing and preservation of perishable goods in a low temperature environment, and the transportation, storage and sales of the goods, so as to ensure the quality of perishable goods.

Compared with developed countries, my country's food cold chain development is relatively late. At present, my country's food cold chain has initially formed, but the construction of cold chain logistics is not mature.

  According to data from Zhejiang Business Research Report, the per capita cold storage capacity of Chinese urban residents in 2018 was only 0.13 cubic meters, which was lower than the global average of 0.15 cubic meters.

In addition, in 2018, the cold chain circulation rates of fruits, vegetables and meat in China were 25% and 39%, respectively, and the spoilage rates were 15% and 8%. There is a big gap compared with developed countries.

  According to data released by the Cold Chain Committee of the China Federation of Things, the scale of my country's cold chain logistics market in 2020 will reach 383.1 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 13%.

According to the forecast of China Business Industry Research Institute, by 2022, the market size of my country's cold chain logistics industry will exceed 450 billion yuan.

  Zhao Xiaomin believes that my country's cold chain market is developing rapidly, but the volume is small, and there is still huge room for development.

According to the data provided by it, around 2012, the scale of the cold chain in China was around 80 billion to 90 billion.

The latest data shows that, including medicines, the scale of cold chain logistics exceeds 500 billion.

"In fact, China can eventually reach a scale of 30,000 to 5 trillion yuan, according to our current consumption structure and industrial structure." Zhao Xiaomin said.

  Zhao Xiaomin said that it is precisely because of the huge market gap that the country has intensively released policies in the past two years to help the industry develop rapidly.

  A reporter from Shell Finance found that in 2020 alone, the state has issued 8 supporting policy documents for the cold chain logistics industry.

  In December 2021, the National Development and Reform Commission issued the "14th Five-Year Plan for Cold Chain Logistics Development".

As the first five-year plan for the cold chain logistics industry, it further established the important position of cold chain logistics in the overall modernization construction.

  With the top-level design, by 2022, the policy release will be even more intensive. The National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Commerce, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, the Railway Administration and other departments have successively issued documents individually or jointly, covering logistics, finance, taxation, capital, etc. Provide support for the development of cold chain logistics in multiple dimensions.

  Zhao Xiaomin believes that among the above-mentioned policies, what is more noteworthy is that in March this year, the Ministry of Finance and other three departments issued a document expressing their support for the implementation of county-level commercial construction actions, which mentioned the improvement of facilities and equipment such as refrigeration, display, packaging, settlement, and food processing.

  "Because the Ministry of Finance has issued a budget plan, it means that huge funds will go in. The last line of defense to restrict the development of cold chain logistics is gone." Zhao Xiaomin also said that in addition to policy promotion and the iterative upgrade of China's consumption level, the epidemic situation The unity of consciousness brought about is also an important reason for promoting the cold chain to enter the outbreak period.

"Because of the epidemic, everyone has recognized the importance of cold chain transportation safety, and a consensus has been formed in the market. Now is the time for enterprises and industries to work in an all-round way... So we believe that in the next 3 to 5 years, in this field, There must be at least ten billion-dollar companies.”

  What is the "cold chain volume" behind the competition of enterprises to "up the chain"?

  Shell Finance reporters noticed that despite frequent policies, the current capital movements in the cold chain market are not prominent.

  Cold chain logistics can be broadly divided into upper, middle and lower links.

Upstream: production and storage of cold and fresh food (drugs); midstream: cross-region cold chain transportation, equipment requirements are mainly cold storage, transport vehicles; downstream: "last mile" distribution of fresh food, pre-made vegetables, etc., equipment requirements include refrigerators, delivery box, etc.

  The three links involve many companies.

Under the tuyere of "cold chain logistics", a number of listed companies are also rushing to "up the chain".

However, the reporter noticed that most listed companies only have some businesses involved in cold chain logistics, and professional cold chain companies are rare.

  According to the incomplete statistics of wind data, since June, Bingshan Lenghe, Yanan Bikang, Longzhou Co., Ltd., Guangming Real Estate, Changlian Co., Ltd., Hongbaoli, Sunshine Dairy, Tianshun Co., Ltd., Manor Ranch, Dongbei Group 17 companies including Foton Motor, SF Holding, Hanbell Precision Machinery, Guanghong Holding, Dongfeng Motor, Guanghui Logistics, and COFCO Engineering have successively stated on the interactive platform that their business involves cold chain logistics.

  However, from the perspective of their respective business proportions, the geometry of the "cold chain volume" is worth scrutinizing.

  Take Bingshan Cold and Heat and COFCO Engineering as examples.

Bingshan Leng He said on the interactive platform that cold chain logistics is one of the company's advantageous market segments, and the company will actively seize policy opportunities and continue to deepen the cold chain logistics market.

  However, according to its annual report last year, in 2021, Bingshan Cooling and Heating is mainly engaged in refrigeration and air conditioning business, and the related revenue in 2021 will be 2.032 billion yuan, accounting for 97.26% of its total revenue.

The cold chain is also mentioned in its annual report, but it is more involved in participating in Panasonic Cold Chain (Dalian) Co., Ltd. In 2021, the book value balance of its equity investment will be 90.33 million yuan.

  COFCO Engineering stated that it is a comprehensive technical service provider and equipment manufacturer in the domestic agricultural food and cold chain logistics industry, mainly serving the fields of rice, wheat, oil, feed, corn and grain logistics and storage, as well as agricultural and sideline products refrigeration and cold chain logistics. field.

The company's 2021 annual report shows that the company's cold chain logistics industry revenue is 466 million yuan, accounting for only 21.5% of the company's total revenue of 2.17 billion yuan.

  In this regard, Zhao Xiaomin concluded that there is still a lack of a comprehensive, large-scale and professional cold chain company in China.

Zhao Xiaomin said that, especially in the field of scale, at present, there are about 150 A-share listed companies involved in the cold chain, but no one company has reached the scale of 100 billion, even the largest SF Holding has not reached it.

"So the market space is very large."

  The first mile and opening up the first-level cold chain construction in the county is the key

  Cold chain logistics is at the forefront, and there are still many shortcomings that need to be filled urgently.

  Liu Haibo believes that the problem of "the first kilometer" is more urgent and more concentrated.

Liu Haibo explained in detail that the first kilometer refers to the cold treatment of agricultural products after they are picked from the fields to prevent them from producing a lot of "breathing heat".

  "Often, the first step is not paid attention to, which leads to the transportation to the next stage under the condition of breathing heat, which makes the last mile meaningless. Only when this step is done well, the following chain is meaningful."

  Liu Haibo also believes that in the middle and lower reaches, the mismatch of diversified needs for cold storage construction is also one of the problems to be solved urgently.

  Zhao Xiaomin pointed out that at present, the biggest shortcoming and the biggest key to the construction of the domestic logistics cold chain is the construction of the first-level cold chain in the county.

In the past, cold chain logistics went directly from the field to the middle of the city, and the county level was not involved, so there was a huge gap.

"At present, the country is carrying out commercial construction actions in the county area and a considerable number of third- and fourth-tier cities and underdeveloped areas. If this part of the county can achieve intermediate connection and realize the integration of the national cold chain, the logistics cold chain foundation will be completely completed."

  Beijing News Shell Finance reporter Peng Shuo

Keywords: