数字职业,为有准备的人敞开怀抱

  ——数字化新职业青年就业现状调查分析

  【到新时代新天地中去·青年就业调研之数字职业】

  人才,被数字经济领域视为“第一财富”。依靠人才,数字经济这个以数字技术为基础的新经济形态,推动着生产方式、生活方式和治理方式发生深刻变革。

  6月14日,人社部官网发布《机器人工程技术人员等18个新职业信息向社会公示》,其中一批新职业来自数字经济发展中催生的数字职业。可以看出,此次公示的机器人工程技术人员等新职业,均参照《数字经济及其核心产业统计分类(2021)》,从工具、环境、目标、内容、过程、产出等六项指标进行了界定和标注。许多学者认为,对数字职业进行标注,是我国职业分类工作的重要创新,对推动数字经济、数字技术的发展以及提升全民数字素养具有重要意义。

  在中国人民大学劳动人事学院教授、劳动关系研究所所长吴清军看来,当数据已成为一项新的生产要素,掌握数字化技术的开发或应用将成为每一份职业的必备技能和能力要求,包括在生产制造业中的普通劳动者或服务业的从业者,都需要掌握一定的数字化技术或技能。

  如今,国家和社会各界正对产业数字化和数字产业化背景下的职业分类进行各类专题研究。三个月来,《青年说》团队以“数字化职业青年”为调研对象,大量走访互联网企业及传统行业中的数字职业岗位,发现一些新的现象和观念,正在这个领域集结。

  数字化新职业是个“筐”,文科理科都可往里装?

  什么样的人可从事数字化新职业,一定得是计算机、软件相关专业的人吗?

  不是。数字化新职业并不是纯技术岗位。

  此次调研中,除了新闻、传播等与互联网关联度较高的文科专业之外,国际关系、经济学、行政管理专业都具有较高比例,同时不乏外语、心理学、法学、外交、社会工作等专业。理工类专业人员的主体,也不止包括计算机、软件工程等,车辆工程、冶金工程、材料化学、建筑学等专业背景的人员也拥有较高比例。

  "It can be seen that the new digital occupation is still a 'basket', and the liberal arts and sciences can be loaded into it." Scholars gave such an evaluation.

  Cai Zhihua, head of campus recruiting at Tencent, gave a more specific example: "We have technicians who study medicine, product managers who study design and anthropology, and game planners who study journalism and communication. Everyone can exert their talents in their respective positions."

  Some scholars believe that this seemingly "mix and match" job configuration has actually brought internal momentum to the development of many Internet companies.

This kind of kinetic energy generated from multiple professions, including innovation ability, team activity, working atmosphere, etc., can provide fresh blood for enterprises to maintain innovation activity.

  "In March of this year, during the design process of a community service app, several liberal arts students who were not very tech-savvy provided the ultimate source of inspiration." The person in charge of an Internet company in Guangzhou recalled, "Only based on market research by a consulting company Statistics and consumer feedback, it is difficult for us to find a breakthrough in creativity and profitability. It turned out that the "technical coffee" sitting together is more to discuss the "feasibility" problem, but before solving the "feasibility", What’s more needed are wild ideas, eclectic ideas, which require completely different ‘brains’ to come together.”

  "We pay more attention to a person's mind trained in systematic thinking, not just the specific knowledge learned on campus." Li Wanbin, the head of human resources of an Internet company in Beijing, admitted frankly.

  Such a view is endorsed by Yao Kai, a professor at the School of Management of Fudan University and director of the Fudan University Global Science and Technology Talent Development Research Center. He pointed out that some new digital occupations are new things, and many jobs do not have ready-made knowledge and experience for reference. In addition to professional knowledge, employees are also required to continue to innovate at work, and they need to have the courage and confidence to face challenges.

  "What's more, in many fields, the speed of development on campus cannot keep up with the development outside the campus." Li Wanbin said, "The development of the digital field is changing with each passing day, and enterprises in the digital field must keep up. A new technology and a new business form need to experience precipitation, analysis, How much time does it take to refine it, and then enter the teaching materials and classrooms? In these times, the industry may be 'running thousands of miles away'."

  "So, for many positions, what major you study in college is not so important. What matters is a person's thinking ability and problem-solving ability." He added.

  Cai Zhihua also said: "When we are recruiting on campus, we do not have rigid requirements for students' schools and majors. We pay more attention to whether candidates have a love and vision for the digital industry in their hearts, whether they have high self-driving force and are good at learning. , have the skills that match the job requirements.”

  According to the survey results, 16.22% of the number of people who "jumped" from formal full-time jobs in traditional industries to new digital occupations.

At least half of them did not have much "digital" intersection in their previous jobs.

  On this track called "Digital New Careers", there are various positions in technology, product, design, market/functional, etc. They are open to newcomers in computer, mathematics, new media and other majors, and also welcome Professionals in law, history, management, etc. come.

  Dependence on practice is much higher than expected

  Four years ago, when a reporter interviewed in Pudong, Shanghai, a relevant government official told a story: When exploring and improving the "data cloud" of urban management, government civil servants did not understand computer language, and technical personnel did not understand policy language, so communication was not smooth. .

In order to be a good "translator" between policies and computer programs, civil servants report to get off work collectively after work to learn computer programming.

  This situation is common in digital new career fields.

Over the years, technologists have also taken action.

"What is a result? For a programmer, writing the code is not called the result, but the smooth connection between the code and the customer's needs is called the result." The post-90s youth who was born as a programmer and is currently the technical director of an Internet company Zhang Yihang had such a feeling.

In his view, for fresh graduates and practitioners in the relatively traditional technology development field, this aspect of learning and exercise is relatively lacking.

  In this survey, in the question of "You think that you need to master the three knowledge or skills to be engaged in this profession", operation management skills, basic social science knowledge and basic humanities knowledge ranked in the top three, while computer knowledge ranked in the top three. fifth.

  "It's a bit unexpected, but it's reasonable." Zhang Yihang said, "This is the conclusion drawn in practice, which is in line with our actual situation. The school and the new teacher teach you the technology, and you have to learn how to use it in practice. Technology achieves goals and serves people.”

  In a question mainly aimed at technicians, "What qualities or abilities do you think are most needed in this occupation", "communication skills" came first, not "technical skills."

  During the survey, Sun Zengwei, head of Douyin Group's Toutiao Academy, emphasized the "cost of understanding".

In the new digital career field, expressing oneself and understanding others more fully, and reducing the cost of understanding when people collaborate with each other, are crucial for both industry and business.

  "This is something I couldn't think of when I was studying, and I can't understand it without actual combat." Wang Yao, a young man born in the 90s who was responsible for the design of a mobile game, realized more deeply after leading the team, not to mention the establishment of structural and quantitative thinking. Get used to such "big things", and even small things like "social fear" will affect the effect of the task.

She found that the Internet life has made many young people have different degrees of "social fear". "Some people cannot fully communicate with the market or customers, and asking for directions on the street is a problem."

  To this end, she encourages new members of the team to socialize more offline and communicate with others, even nodding and smiling when they meet strangers on the road.

"This is an important hurdle for them to become a programmer and designer in our company, and they must pass it." Wang Yao said that in the actual combat step by step, everyone has continuously cultivated the ability to learn quickly and solve practical problems.

  "On the other hand, the current traditional talent training model is difficult to meet new talent needs, and there is a certain mismatch between the quality of talent supply and talent demand, which brings certain challenges to the precise connection between digital new professional talents and positions." Yao According to Kay, this means that learning in practice is critical.

  "With a diverse professional background, many employees are not proficient in digital technology, and they need to continue to learn and train at work to overcome the lack of digital-related knowledge." Yao Kai said.

  After all, the professional knowledge learned in school is limited, and the customer needs and market changes faced after work are endless.

New digital occupations, born and developed in the midst of ever-changing technological waves, are a field that is highly dependent on practical ability, a view shared by almost all respondents.

  They all say that they need to charge for learning. Where is this "charging pile"?

  In this survey, "continuously charging and learning" is the most mentioned item in the study planning and career planning of the respondents.

But many people have questions, as practitioners, where do you go to study besides your position?

As a college student, where do you go to study besides the classroom?

  "There are not many channels, but I don't know how to choose." Respondents reflected in the survey that various vocational trainings are now available on the Internet. For those who need to "charge", finding a suitable "charging pile" is a problem that must be solved.

  "Charging piles" connect digital enterprises.

  In the past few years, training institutions, training models and training programs that serve vocational education and are committed to improving the professional skills of digital practitioners have appeared in various Internet companies.

Practitioners with certain experience are more willing to choose this type of training model that is backed by real enterprises and has professional targeting.

  The relevant person in charge of Douyin Group Toutiao Academy introduced that Toutiao Academy, a training and service brand under Beijing ByteDance that promotes employment and entrepreneurship, has found some useful experiences in the training.

For example, in teaching, through the use of digital tools and systems, students can form good digital thinking habits through the data recording process and form a mechanism for rapid feedback and review; Complete tasks in scenarios, develop digital skills and develop coherence.

  "At the same time, we also focus on setting job roles in the training, so that trainees can improve their collaboration and communication skills through digital organization," she said.

  "Charging piles" connect colleges and universities.

  "College training has comprehensive and systematic course content, and the advantage is that it can teach basic knowledge and skills on a large scale." Some human resources leaders of digital companies pointed out, "But because of the large scale of students, it is difficult to achieve the core of customization. Literacy training, the theory and application of knowledge also need more application scenarios." This brings a new proposition to the talent training model of school-enterprise cooperation.

  In Cai Zhihua's view, at present, the deep integration of theoretical teaching in universities and practical teaching in enterprises is in a good period.

He introduced that many Internet companies, including Tencent, pay close attention to the improvement of the professional quality of school students, and actively participate in the Ministry of Education's supply-demand matching employment and education project.

  "In the past few years, we have worked hard to establish a vocational awareness course system in school-enterprise cooperation to help students with career planning; we have set up 'elite classes' with colleges and universities to cultivate and cultivate targeted talents; we have jointly built internship practice bases and carried out project practice cooperation. , to improve students' practical ability." Cai Zhihua said that many colleges and universities currently regard in-depth development of industry-university cooperation, co-construction of majors, and co-construction of courses as important tasks. As for whether college students can use these platforms to improve themselves, "in the end, it depends on the students themselves." .

  "New occupations in the future will have higher and higher requirements for practitioners' digital technology." Wu Qingjun put forward suggestions for current college education: on the one hand, in terms of educational content, digital technologies and skills should be integrated into the teaching of various disciplines. Whether it is production, operation or management disciplines, digital technology must be integrated into the existing knowledge system; on the one hand, in the education system, increase the intensity of professional adjustment, increase professional settings such as artificial intelligence, big data analysis, and cloud computing, and use social Demand-oriented, cultivate more talents who are in line with future industrial development.

  No matter how sufficient the "charging pile" is, the final effect still depends on the actions of the "charger".

  "It can be seen from the newly announced 18 new occupations that in addition to occupations directly related to digital information, there are also occupational positions such as additive manufacturing engineering technicians, agricultural digital technicians, and some non-digital majors. Students and practitioners can Through digital vocational skills training, practical training and other activities, combine digitalization with professional knowledge and skills to adapt to and meet the job needs of the digital transformation and development of the future industry." Yao Kai is full of confidence in contemporary college students, he said, "Currently colleges and universities Students have strong learning ability, and through training, I believe that many students can quickly be competent for related jobs after employment.”

  "It seems that this 'charging pile' has to be 'installed' by ourselves in the daily study and work schedule." Some respondents came to this conclusion.

  (Reporter Peng Jinghui Li Danyang Cao Yanan)

  Support for the topic selection of this issue: Chai Rujin, Deng Hui, Jin Haotian

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