According to a study, the federal government's area target for the expansion of wind turbines on land is generally achievable.

In principle, there are sufficient suitable areas for onshore wind energy to achieve the two percent area target - if politicians are willing to accept "conflict risks".

What is meant are conflicts, for example between the expansion of wind power and the protection of nature and species.

This was the result of a study commissioned by the Ministry of Economics and Climate Protection on the potential of the federal states.

The federal government wants two percent of the state area to be designated for the construction of wind turbines.

So far, most countries have not come close to reaching this value.

The more exceptions, the more difficult

The study also shows that the specification of very high distances from settlements to wind turbines and the exclusion of forest areas, landscape protection areas or areas of particular importance for the landscape greatly reduce the area potential and make it impossible or very unlikely to achieve the goal.

According to the study, the greatest potential for the expansion of wind energy does not necessarily lie in the regions in which the expansion of onshore wind energy has primarily taken place up to now.

Although Brandenburg and Lower Saxony have very high area potential, in absolute figures the highest potential is in Bavaria and further high potential in Baden-Württemberg, Thuringia and Hesse.

In relation to the state area, the highest potentials are in Thuringia, Brandenburg and Hesse.

Don't just build in northern Germany

A total of ten scenarios were examined - depending on how strict the distances between wind turbines and residential buildings are and how high the average wind speed is.

In the southern federal states, a large proportion of the land has fewer, but probably still sufficiently good wind conditions for the economic operation of the systems.

According to the study, the two percent target should be legally anchored in a wind area requirements law.

In addition to the two percent target in 2032, there are also plans to set an interim target of 1.4 percent area for 2026 in order to guarantee the expansion target for 2030.

Not every federal state has to provide the same proportion of the state area.

"Rather, the different requirements of the federal states should be taken into account when distributing the area target."

According to plans by Federal Economics and Climate Protection Minister Robert Habeck (Greens), 80 percent of the electricity should come from renewable sources by 2030, and by 2035 it should be almost 100 percent.

In 2021, according to industry information, it was around 42 percent.

According to the study, the sufficient availability of land for wind energy on land is a fundamental prerequisite.

This was created under the leadership of the consulting company Guidehouse Germany.