"The national unified market does not mean one size fits all" "The national unified market is not proposed out of thin air. The introduction of this document has historical and policy coherence and stability.

"The Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Accelerating the Construction of a National Unified Market" was recently issued and quickly became the focus of the market. How to understand the concept of "National Unified Market"? At present, China's construction is unified, open, competitive and orderly. Is the time ripe for the national unified market of sexual characteristics? How should the national unified market be built?

  After the publication of the "Opinions", some people believe that accelerating the construction of a unified national market means returning to the planned economy model.

In this regard, experts said that the national unified large market and the centrally unified planned economy are fundamentally different.

Although the word "unification" is used, the connotation of "unification" is different, which is a fundamental problem.

  Focus 1

  What issues did the "Opinions" raise?

  Zhang Zheng, a professor at the School of Economics at Peking University, said that the "national unified market" was not proposed out of thin air. The issuance of this document actually has historical and policy coherence and stability.

Our understanding and proposal of the "national unified big market" is a process of development, and it is also a process of deepening understanding.

  He believes that the "Opinions" put forward this time are first and foremost inevitable in historical development, and reflect the result of our continuous deepening of the market economic system.

The market has developed from a barter place that belongs to the category of natural economy to a market network that has begun to take shape in modern times, and has become the core element of the commodity economy.

Since the reform and opening up, my country has experienced a long-term exploration in the process of developing a market economy, but in the actual process, we have found that the role of the market is often affected by various factors, such as space scale, transaction methods, competition systems, etc., nurturing and developing The market system has become an important content, that is, in order to continuously improve and perfect the market function, it is necessary to move from institutional arrangement to arrangement system.

  The second is the inevitability of policy practice, which reflects the result of our continuous improvement of market economic practice.

The "Opinions" put forward the concept of "unified big market", focusing on enriching market connotation, optimizing market services, improving market support, etc., and trying to create a unified, efficient and high-quality market system to expand domestic demand, smooth circulation, and improve files. Upgrading is the future goal of China's market economy development.

These goals are not only the needs of market practice, but also the premise of market development.

Affected by the impact of the new crown epidemic and uncertain factors at home and abroad, the current market system can no longer meet the needs of economic development, and even the problems of the market itself have become an obstacle to economic development.

Therefore, there is an urgent need to further open up obstacles and smooth circulation, break down barriers and protectionism, and give better play to the role of the market economy and the law of value.

  Furthermore, it is the necessity of theoretical exploration, which illustrates the result of our continuous enrichment of market economic theories.

In the past, when we talked about market economy, we were more limited to general theories such as price, supply and demand, and equilibrium, and even had many idealistic colors.

The proposal of the "big national unified market" is to build the market itself as a resource, which broadens our understanding of the connotation of the market economy, which was never recognized in the past.

For a long time, we have always regarded the market as a naturally formed thing. In fact, the market itself needs to be built, adjusted, deepened and constantly upgraded.

High-quality economic development and quality leadership require a higher level of market conditions to guarantee, which involves the issue of "break and stand".

It can be said that the release of the "Opinions" is a process of continuous sublimation and dialectical understanding of the market, and it is also the result of the development of market economic theory.

  Focus 2

  Is the time ripe for building a "national unified market"?

  At present, is the time ripe to build a unified, open, competitive and orderly national market in China?

"My judgment is that it is basically mature." Zhang Zheng said, first of all, my country's market size is already relatively large, and it is one of the few single regional markets in the world.

Last year, my country's GDP exceeded 114 trillion yuan, ranking second in the world's total economic output, and it already has the necessary conditions to form a super-large market.

  Secondly, my country's market structure has become more diverse, and the market forms are also more abundant.

At present, there is not only a relatively complete commodity market, but also a variety of factor markets, including land, labor, capital, data, information, etc., which are basically marketized, and have the ability to realize the optimal linkage allocation of resources, commodities and production factors. condition.

With the diversification of the market structure and the emergence of new business formats, new models, and new fields, the construction of relevant systems and guarantees must be matched, otherwise there will be many "vacuum areas".

In this regard, the introduction of the "Opinions" is very timely and necessary.

  At the same time, from the perspective of the institutional development of the market itself, there are already very good conditions.

In addition to the expansion of the above-mentioned market scale, the development of soft conditions such as market concepts, rules, and mechanisms has also been relatively sufficient.

For example, prices are currently liberalized, the market system is open, and the policy process is transparent and open.

Therefore, whether in terms of market size, market structure or market mechanism, the basic conditions for establishing a unified large market have been met.

  Focus 3

  What should we pay attention to when building a "national unified market"?

  Regarding the construction of a "national unified market", Wei Jianguo, former vice minister of the Ministry of Commerce and vice chairman of the China Center for International Economic Exchanges, said that "three relationships" should be clarified.

The first is the relationship between the big market and the strong market.

Our market is big, but big but not strong.

It is mainly manifested in the insufficient allocation of resources; the speed of capital turnover is not fast enough; there is still local protectionism, and some local markets are still small and complete self-circulation.

  The second is the relationship between the large market and the small markets in various provinces, cities and regions, that is, the relationship between the "unity" and regionality of the unified large market.

The "Opinions" make it clear that the unification of a large unified market is not uniform, but on the premise of maintaining a unified large market across the country, combined with the implementation of major regional strategies and regional coordinated development strategies, giving priority to the construction of regional market integration.

  In addition, there is a unified large market and a smooth relationship between dual circulation.

It is necessary to give full play to the key role of the large domestic market in the development pattern of the dual-cycle economy, make full use of the advantages of the super-large market, let the demand better lead the optimization of supply, and let the supply better serve the expansion of demand.

  Focus 4

  Isn't it contradictory to engage in a small self-circulation and promote regional integration?

  A unified national market does not mean "one size fits all".

The situation varies from place to place. From the perspective of the spatial distribution of productivity, regional economic integration is the general trend, which is conducive to the effective agglomeration of production factors and the improvement of efficiency.

  Xu Hongcai, deputy director of the Economic Policy Committee of the Chinese Society for Policy Science, believes that the objective law of economic development must be followed: the economy always develops in the process of breaking the old balance and establishing a new one.

The unbalanced development across the country is indeed an eternal "contradiction".

Taking the Yangtze River Delta region as an example, the three provinces and one city with Shanghai as the center have strong industrial agglomeration and synergy of production factors, and the supporting capabilities of the industrial chain are gradually formed in the process of market competition.

  At the same time, it should not be underestimated that the gathering of industries will lead to spillover and radiation effects in the surrounding area, and there should be overall coordination for this.

From the perspective of the five national strategies for regional economic development, there are not only the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the Yangtze River Delta, but also the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the Yangtze River Economic Belt, the high-quality ecological development of the Yellow River Basin, and the development of the Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle. To adapt to local conditions.

In the Yangtze River Delta region, Shanghai's central position is the result of historical factors and national policy support. At the same time, it should be noted that the satellite cities around Shanghai have also developed with their own characteristics.

  Xu Hongcai said that the "national unified market" cannot be directly equated with egalitarianism.

To follow the objective laws of economic development, on the one hand, promote the integration of regional economic development;

This is crucial to achieving high-quality common development and common prosperity.

  Focus 5

  What new changes will the implementation of the "Opinions" bring?

  Zhang Zheng believes that after the implementation of the "Opinions", the impact on policy concepts, industrial activities and regulatory practices will be very large, and the coverage will be very wide.

  First of all, it will bring new changes to the policies and concepts of market construction.

In the past, when we talked about the market, we often talked about the hardware and shell of the market, that is, the market system and market layout.

The market we are talking about today not only needs to consider the hardware of the market, but also how to realize a good and efficient market.

Among them, the four "unifications" mentioned in the "Opinions" are to improve a unified property rights protection system, implement a unified market access system, maintain a unified fair competition system, and improve a unified social credit system. These are all future policy practices. important direction.

  Second, new changes will be brought about at the level of industrial activities.

For example, the high-standard connection of market facilities mentioned in the third part of the "Opinions" promotes the construction of a national logistics hub network and vigorously develops multimodal transport; unifies the information release mechanism for property rights transactions to realize the connection of the national property rights transaction market; creates unified elements and resources Market, which involves land and labor market, capital market, technology and data market, energy market, ecological environment market, etc.

Taking land as an example, the "Opinions" proposed for the first time that the incremental construction land and the stock construction land should be coordinated, unified planning should be implemented, and unified management should be strengthened. In the future, the land transfer process and strategy may be changed, and capital supervision may also be changed.

  The sixth part of the "Opinions" specifically talks about market supervision practices, including three aspects: unified market supervision rules, market supervision law enforcement and enhancement of market supervision capabilities.

For example, in key areas directly related to people's health and life safety, such as food and drug safety, the strictest standards, the strictest supervision, the most severe punishments, and the most serious accountability will be implemented.

How these "four strictest" rules are embodied is a new change.

Zhang Zheng believes that there are at least four aspects to the changes in supervision capacity, how to supervise across departments, how to jointly enforce the law, how to supervise new business forms and new models, and how to play a role in social forces.

In terms of supervision and law enforcement, "strengthening the standardization and construction of market supervision", "unifying law enforcement standards and procedures, regulating law enforcement behavior, and reducing discretionary power" have all been written into the "Opinions". These are the new changes we look forward to in the future.

  Focus 6

  What is the difference between a unified large market and a centrally planned economy?

  After the publication of the "Opinions", some people believe that accelerating the construction of a unified national market means returning to the planned economy model.

Zhang Zheng said that the national unified market and the centrally planned economy are fundamentally different.

Although the word "unification" is used, the connotation of "unification" is different, which is a fundamental problem.

In the past, the "unified planned economy" consisted of unified purchases, sales, and management. The government had the final say. Most of the resources were owned by the government and allocated by orders. This was a way of replacing the market mechanism with centralized management.

  The "unified big market" we are talking about today refers to the unification of market services, market standards, market supervision and consumer rights and interests. Ordered market regulation mechanism.

This new round of market construction policies and practices, which not only has internal vitality, but also has significant external characteristics such as huge scale, complete structure, multiple functions, and flexible mechanisms, will provide a large space and a large stage for my country to achieve super-large-scale economic development. So the two cannot be confused.

  Memorabilia of the National Unified Market

  November 1993

  The Third Plenary Session of the Fourteenth Central Committee proposed for the first time the establishment of a unified, open, competitive and orderly market.

  October 2003

  The Third Plenary Session of the 16th CPC Central Committee further made arrangements for accelerating the construction of a unified national market, proposing that "strengthening the unity of the market is an important task in building a modern market system".

  November 2013

  The Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee proposed to "build a unified, open, competitive and orderly market system".

  August 19, 2015

  The top officials of the central government officially and publicly used the term "national unified big market".

Premier Li Keqiang presided over an executive meeting of the State Council. When deploying relevant policies for the development of the modern circulation industry, he pointed out that it is necessary to resolutely remove various "roadblocks" that hinder the construction of a unified national market, prohibit the abuse of administrative power to restrict or exclude fair competition, and prohibit the use of market advantages. Status charges unreasonable fees or forcibly set unreasonable transaction conditions to reduce the total cost of social circulation.

  October 2, 2015

  The "Opinions of the State Council on Implementing the Negative List System for Market Access" was promulgated, proposing to create a market environment of fair trade and equal competition compatible with the negative list system for market access, "Relevant departments should clean up and abolish restrictions on the market in resource allocation as required. Various regulations and practices that play a decisive role in hindering the unified national market and fair competition, strictly prohibit and punish all kinds of illegal implementation of preferential policies, oppose local protection, oppose monopoly and unfair competition, and prevent relevant policies from hindering the unified national market and fair competition ."

  November 2, 2015

  At the national teleconference on promoting the modernization of domestic trade circulation, Premier Li Keqiang instructed to "vigorously reform and innovate, improve support policies, further remove the 'roadblocks' that hinder the construction of a unified national market, break regional blockades, unblock the market's 'meridians', and effectively reduce circulation costs. ".

  April 11, 2016

  The State Council’s symposium specifically pointed out that unreasonable administrative intervention should be avoided in the promotion of reform, and enterprises should not be restricted from operating across regions, requiring the purchase of local products, etc., so as to prevent the formation of local protection and markets. Divide, use various improper means to compete for tax sources, and undermine the construction of a unified national market.

  October 18, 2017

  At the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the relevant expressions of the unified market were written into the documents of the Party Congress.

In his report to the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized that when expounding on "speeding up the improvement of the socialist market economic system", he emphasized that the market access negative list system should be fully implemented, various regulations and practices that hinder a unified market and fair competition should be cleaned up and abolished, and private enterprises should be supported. development and stimulate the vitality of various market players.

  September 17, 2020

  The executive meeting of the State Council pointed out that the promotion of "trans-provincial handling" of high-frequency matters closely related to the development of enterprises and people's lives is an important measure to deepen the reform of "decentralization, management and services" and optimize the business environment, which is conducive to the free flow of various factors, Establish a unified national market.

  The Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee held a month later proposed to improve the basic system of the market system, adhere to equal access, fair supervision, openness and order, integrity and law-abiding, and form a domestic unified market that is efficient, standardized, and fair competition.

  December 17, 2021

  The 23rd meeting of the Central Committee for Comprehensively Deepening Reform reviewed and approved documents such as the Opinions on Accelerating the Construction of a Large National Market, further proposing that "the market should play a decisive role in resource allocation and the government should play a better role".

  March 5, 2022

  The "Government Work Report" proposes to "strengthen the construction of a high-standard market system, do a good job of piloting the comprehensive reform of the market-based allocation of factors, and accelerate the construction of a unified national market."

  April 10, 2022

  The "Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Accelerating the Construction of a Large National Market" was officially released, proposing that my country will build a large national market from the construction of basic systems and market facilities.

  Beijing News reporter Chen Lin