Shift from traditional energy sources to green development (economic focus, focus on clean and efficient use of coal)
During the Two Sessions this year, General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized when participating in the deliberation of the Inner Mongolia delegation that rich coal, poor oil and little gas are my country's national conditions, and it is difficult to fundamentally change the coal-dominated energy structure in the short term.
To achieve the "dual carbon" goal, we must base ourselves on the national conditions, insist on making progress while maintaining stability, and gradually realize it.
The "14th Five-Year Plan" period is a critical period and a window period for carbon to reach its peak. Based on the basic national conditions of coal-based, we must make good efforts to use coal cleanly and efficiently.
How to realize scientific, rational, standardized and orderly development and utilization of coal resources?
How to further promote coal pollution reduction and carbon reduction, and improve utilization efficiency?
Recently, our reporter visited Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and other places to report on the lively local practices.
The raw coal just mined from the ground is crushed, flotated and screened in a fully enclosed workshop, and then separated into slime, clean coal and gangue, which are transported out through different channels.
Above the coal train, a huge funnel automatically pours dozens of tons of clean coal into each carriage within tens of seconds.
During the whole process, only the roaring machine and the speeding conveyor belt were working, and no one was seen.
This is the Guoneng Shendong Coal Washing Center in Ordos City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Tao Yadong, chief engineer of the center, told reporters: "What we are doing is to make the use of coal cleaner."
As an important coal production and supply base in my country, Inner Mongolia's coal output in 2021 will account for more than a quarter of the country's total.
In recent years, Inner Mongolia has vigorously promoted the scientific, rational, standardized and orderly development and utilization of coal resources, and issued a series of policy documents, clarifying the main paths and directions for strengthening the clean and efficient utilization of coal.
Clean, efficient and intelligent, it has now become a distinctive feature of the development of the local coal industry.
Precise coal mining for cleaner supply
Walking into the Yitai Hongqinghe Coal Mine in Yijinhuoluo Banner, Ordos City, it is hard to see dust and no noise.
With smooth and clean roads and neat and tidy buildings, it is hard to believe that this is a large mine with an annual output of 15 million tons of coal.
800 meters underground, the intelligent comprehensive mechanized coal mining face is automatically shoveling down large pieces of raw coal.
The raw coal is initially crushed, transported by the scraper loader, and then raised to the ground through the mine.
In the control room on the ground, workers sit in front of screens watching each process.
"At present, the automatic positioning and memory cutting of the shearer, the automatic follow-up of the hydraulic support and the visual remote monitoring have been realized underground. Combined with the comprehensive automation system, we can realize the intelligent monitoring and centralized control of the fully mechanized mining equipment on the ground. The rate is over 90%," said He Yuxi, deputy general manager of the coal mine.
As an old worker with more than 20 years of "mining age", He Yuxi lamented the great changes in coal mines today, "In the past, we used blasting to mine coal, use tricycles to transport coal, and use iron hooks to prepare coal, and we couldn't wash it off every day. Coal ash, I dare not wear light-colored clothes to work." Today, through the construction of a fully closed process, the coal mine has realized "coal without coal" - from coal mining, to washing, loading, and loading, workers do not have to directly touch the coal .
He Yuxi said: "This not only improves the working environment, but also reduces pollution. It also realizes precise coal mining and improves coal quality."
At Guoneng Shendong Coal Shangwan Coal Preparation Plant, which is more than 50 kilometers away from Hongqinghe Coal Mine, Tian Yanfeng, deputy director of the factory, is inspecting the factories.
Through a smart terminal the size of a mobile phone, he can monitor the data of each link and operate the coal washing process.
"From the initial screening and crushing, to lump coal washing, pre-powdering, etc., the system automatically takes different measures according to the different properties of the coal to produce high-quality clean products with low ash, low sulfur and low phosphorus." Tian Yanfeng said .
"The purpose of coal washing is to remove impurities in coal and improve utilization efficiency." Tian Yanfeng introduced that in order to better achieve this goal, the company has been carrying out intelligent transformation since 2013, in big data collection and analysis, production decision-making, equipment Carry out technical exploration in monitoring and management, production process control and other aspects.
"Through the transformation, our clean coal yield has increased by 1.09%, and the whole process of coal washing has been intelligentized, the process is more accurate, and the coal is cleaner."
Retrofit and upgrade, more efficient combustion
Walking into the Baotou Steel Thermal Power Plant on the Kundulun River in Baotou City, technicians are carrying out technical renovations on two old boilers.
"These two boilers are fluidized bed boilers. Compared with ordinary boilers, they are more adaptable to coal fuel. Generally speaking, they are 'not picky eaters'." Tian Shunsheng, regional technical director of the thermal power plant, told reporters, "It is generally regarded as waste. It can 'eat' all the gangue. In addition, the units of these two boilers are also responsible for heating the urban area of Baotou City, so we decided to transform and upgrade them."
In order to improve the boiler efficiency, Tian Shunsheng and his team carried out a series of technological innovations: ceramic spraying on the water wall of the furnace, adding a grille, canceling the cyclone separator boss, raising the bottom height of the return feeder... After the transformation, the unit The coal consumption for power generation is reduced by 2 g/kWh compared with that before the transformation, the heat absorption capacity of the boiler is increased by 20%, and the efficiency is increased to 91.7%.
"The efficiency is improved, the incomplete combustion of coal is also reduced, and the unit is cleaner as a whole." Tian Shunsheng said that after the transformation is completed, the residual residue in the boiler will be reduced by about 1%.
"More importantly, the efficiency of smoke removal, dust removal, desulfurization and denitrification has also been improved. With the simultaneous transformation of our denitration system, the pollutants in the exhaust gas have dropped by more than 75% compared with previous years."
Through in-depth promotion of energy-saving transformation and upgrading of coal-fired power units, Inner Mongolia has promoted the transformation of the region's energy structure to a clean and low-carbon energy structure.
During the "13th Five-Year Plan" period, Inner Mongolia completed the energy-saving transformation and upgrading of coal-fired power units of 31.24 million kilowatts, and built a clean and efficient coal-fired power supply system.
In 2021, the standard coal consumption of coal-fired power units in the region will be 312 g/kWh, a decrease of 25 g/kWh compared with 2015.
Wang Jinbao, director of the Energy Bureau of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, said, "We will further improve the efficiency of coal use, continue to strengthen the energy-saving transformation of existing coal-fired power units, increase efforts to eliminate outdated coal-fired units, and reasonably arrange the construction and commissioning of coal-fired power projects that have been included in the planning." According to the action plan, by 2023, the average coal consumption of newly built coal-fired power generating units in Inner Mongolia will be lower than 300 g/kWh, and the existing coal-fired power generating units will be transformed to about 12 million kilowatts.
Reduce pollution and carbon to help achieve the "double carbon" goal
In Yijinhuoluo Banner, there is an industrialized direct coal liquefaction production line.
Here, coal is converted into diesel, gasoline and other products.
Liu Fusheng, deputy general manager of the Ordos Coal-to-Liquid Branch of China Shenhua Coal-to-Liquid Chemical Co., Ltd., said: "The direct liquefaction of coal requires a large amount of hydrogen to participate in the reaction. Hydrogen production is an important process for us and the most important source of carbon emissions. In this process The concentration of carbon dioxide emitted is as high as 90%, which provides convenient conditions for the implementation of carbon capture and storage.”
Liu Fusheng told reporters that the principle of carbon capture and storage is to collect high-purity carbon dioxide and store it underground in a supercritical state, so that it can be diffused and stored in deep underground high-porosity rock formations, and gradually chemically react with underground materials. solidified by reaction.
"At this moment, 300,000 tons of carbon dioxide has been stored in the rock formations 1,000 to 3,000 meters below our feet."
According to reports, the current cost of carbon capture and storage is about 160 yuan per ton. With the continuous maturity of related technologies and the expansion of carbon capture and storage scale, this figure is expected to continue to decrease.
Liu Fusheng said: "We plan to build a carbon capture and storage project with a scale of 1.2 million tons in the next step, and continue to promote the technology to mature and help achieve the 'double carbon' goal."
At the Jinshan Thermal Power Plant Phase II project site more than 20 kilometers southwest of downtown Hohhot, a tall tower has gradually taken shape.
After completion, the tower will be 228 meters high, with an outer edge diameter of 197.4 meters.
Li Junyi, deputy general manager of the project, introduced that the tower adopts the "three-tower-in-one" technology of chimney, desulfurization tower and intercooling tower, which can save land and reduce the impact on the surrounding environment.
In order to reduce the emission of pollutants such as smoke and dust, this project has applied a number of technologies such as pilot-type external bypass pneumatic ash conveying and low-pressure air compressors. The desulfurization efficiency can reach 99.73%, and the dust removal efficiency can reach 99.98%.
"Through multiple optimization designs, the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the flue gas emitted by the project will be less than 30 mg/standard cubic meter, the concentration of nitrogen oxides will be less than 50 mg/standard cubic meter, and the concentration of soot will be less than 5 mg/standard cubic meter, reaching the domestic leading level. "Li Junyi said.
On the north side of the project construction site, the vast green mountains stand majestically.
Li Junyi stood under the tower that was about to be built and looked at Daqingshan with anticipation.
"In summer, Daqingshan will be covered with green. We hope that after our tower is built, we can further protect this green."Keywords: