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The central document with nearly 10,000 characters draws two bottom lines

  Reporter Xie Yiguan

  Recently, the 2022 Central No. 1 document "Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Doing a Good Job in Comprehensively Promoting the Key Work of Rural Revitalization in 2022" was released.

  With a document of nearly 10,000 words, why are the "two bottom lines" and "three key points" so important?

Why focus on the reasonable guarantee of farmers' income from growing grain?

What is the meaning of the first mention of "live broadcast with goods"?

Dong Yu, Executive Deputy Dean of the China Development Planning Institute of Tsinghua University, was interviewed by the "China New Observation" column of Chinanews.com to interpret this.

Excerpts from the interview are as follows:

Chinanews.com reporter: This year's Central No. 1 document emphasizes firmly adhering to the "two bottom lines" of ensuring national food security and preventing a large-scale return to poverty and the "three priorities" of rural development, rural construction, and rural governance in a solid and orderly manner. So what do you think?

Dong Yu:

In the field of agriculture and rural areas, the task of keeping the bottom line of safety is particularly urgent.

If there is any "gray rhino" event risk in the economy, then the supply of primary products, especially food security, is undoubtedly one of the most important risks that need attention and prevention.

  The most important criterion to test the effectiveness of poverty alleviation is to see whether the people who have been lifted out of poverty can be consolidated.

If a large-scale return to poverty occurs, the efforts made in previous years will be in vain, and it is more likely to have an impact on the stability of rural areas, thereby affecting the overall stability of economic and social development.

Therefore, these two bottom lines must be maintained, which is a major task at present.

  To keep the bottom line, it is not enough to rely on passive defense, but more importantly, there is action.

Therefore, the "three priorities" are based on the key and difficult issues in the "two bottom lines", in order to better maintain food security and improve farmers' well-being.

Among them, rural development is to consolidate the industrial foundation of rural revitalization and enhance the driving force for rural development; rural construction is to consolidate the environmental foundation of rural revitalization and provide better conditions for the production and life of rural residents; rural governance is to consolidate the institutional foundation of rural revitalization, and practical Maintain the peace and stability of rural society.

  The "two bottom lines" and the "three priorities" are logically in the same line, they capture the crux of the current agricultural and rural work, play a key role in mobilizing the whole body, and are the embodiment of using the system concept to plan and promote rural revitalization .

Data map: A scene of cultivated land in Hulunbuir.

Photo by Tian Linxin

Chinanews.com reporter: This year's Central No. 1 document proposes to reasonably guarantee farmers' income from growing grains and improve the mechanism for ensuring farmers' income from growing grains.

In 2022, the minimum purchase price of rice and wheat will be appropriately increased.

What are the positive effects of this?

Dong Yu: To

maintain food security, in the final analysis, it is necessary to maintain the enthusiasm of farmers to grow grain, so that grain farming does not suffer from losses and benefits. This requires establishing a reasonable grain-growing income-oriented mechanism.

In the context of a bumper grain harvest, it is necessary to prevent sharp price fluctuations and prevent "low-cost grains hurting farmers."

It should also be noted that in recent years, the prices of chemical fertilizers and some pesticides have increased, which has increased the cost of planting. If the price of grain is not adjusted accordingly, it will have a greater impact on agricultural production.

  The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has made it clear that it will promote and improve the guarantee mechanism for farmers' income from growing grain, and strive to maintain policy capital and increase business efficiency.

In terms of policy, the minimum purchase price of rice and wheat should be appropriately increased, and the subsidy policies for corn and soybean producers and rice subsidies should be stabilized, so as to achieve full cost insurance and planting income insurance for the three major grain crops.

  A few days before the release of the No. 1 Central Document this year, the National Development and Reform Commission and other four ministries and commissions announced the minimum purchase price of rice in 2022. The minimum purchase price per 50 kilograms of early indica rice, mid-late indica rice and japonica rice increased by 2 yuan and 1 yuan respectively compared with last year. Yuan and 1 yuan have increased by 3 yuan, 2 yuan and 2 yuan respectively compared with 2020, and the strength has been slightly improved compared with last year.

The prices of wheat and corn last year were much higher than the minimum purchase price.

The statement in the No. 1 Central Document this time will play a positive role in stabilizing the expectations of grain farmers and thus stabilizing grain production.

Data map: The new type of rice planted for the first time on the Dasha River.

Photo by Zhu Zhigeng

Chinanews.com reporter: This year's Central Document No. 1 focuses on major agricultural disasters, and proposes to increase the construction and investment in agricultural disaster prevention, mitigation and relief capabilities, strengthen the construction of agricultural and rural, water conservancy, and meteorological disaster monitoring and early warning systems, and enhance the ability to respond to extreme weather.

And for the first time, it is proposed to strengthen the research on the impact of medium and long-term climate change on agriculture.

How to interpret it?

Dong Yu:

Agriculture has traditionally been an industry that "depends on the weather". Although technological progress has significantly enhanced the ability of sustainable agricultural development in recent years, the impact of natural disasters on food production cannot be underestimated.

  In 2021, my country's natural disaster situation is complex and severe, extreme weather and climate events occur frequently, and the total affected area of ​​crops will reach 11,739,000 hectares.

Many people still remember the impact of floods, droughts and other disasters on agricultural production in some places.

Taking into account the strong correlation between agricultural production and natural disasters, the Central No. 1 document emphasizes disaster prevention, which is highly targeted.

  At the same time, in addition to the impact of sudden extreme weather, the impact of climate change must also be paid great attention.

Climate change will aggravate the spatial and temporal differences in precipitation, leading to frequent floods and droughts, and will also exacerbate water scarcity in some agricultural areas.

Moreover, the frequent occurrence of meteorological disasters will also lead to aggravation of agricultural pests and diseases, which in turn will affect food production.

  At present, research on climate change at home and abroad is still deepening. Ecosystems in many regions of my country are relatively fragile, and it is more necessary to strengthen research on related issues and do a good job in key technical reserves to better cope with the possible impact of natural disasters.

Data map: College students incarnate as anchors and live broadcast "bringing farm goods" under the epidemic.

Photo courtesy of Sichuan Vocational College of Science and Technology

Chinanews.com reporter: The Central No. 1 document also mentioned that the project of "prospering agriculture through digital businesses" will be implemented to promote e-commerce into rural areas.

Promote the standardized and healthy development of live streaming of agricultural and sideline products.

Give play to the role of online sales platform for agricultural and sideline products in poverty alleviation areas.

What are the considerations for the live broadcast with goods being written into the Central No. 1 file?

Dong Yu:

The promotion of e-commerce into rural areas proposed by the Central Document No. 1 will play a positive role in promoting the development of modern agriculture.

  Selling agricultural products by means of live broadcasts and other methods will help broaden the sales channels of agricultural products and effectively solve the problem of difficult sales of agricultural products; it will also help the promotion of characteristic and advantageous agricultural products, realize the personalized and refined production and processing of agricultural products, and make farmers rich provide new avenues.

  However, the live broadcast of agricultural products should also be standardized and orderly, based on the improvement of the quality of agricultural products, and should be combined with the promotion and use of geographical indications, to prevent deceptive marketing, and to crack down on violations of laws and regulations.

By creating a healthy online sales market for agricultural products, a new model of online and offline integrated development of the primary industry will be realized.

Data map: A scene of Duhuang New Village.

Photo courtesy of Huang Junhao

Chinanews.com reporter: In terms of rural construction, the Central No. 1 document proposes that we should not blindly demolish old villages and build new ones, and do not go beyond the development stage to engage in large-scale financing, large-scale development, and large-scale construction, so as to avoid waste of invalid investment and prevent village-level debt risks. .

How is this instructive?

Dong Yu:

Rural revitalization is a major strategic task of the central government, which must be attached great importance to and vigorously promoted.

In this process, it is necessary to use the system concept to think about and solve problems more, and avoid single-handedly or single-handedly rushing forward.

  It is necessary to combine rural revitalization with the development stage of my country's urbanization and the trend of regional development. Where conditions permit, it is necessary to increase infrastructure and other construction efforts to accelerate the transformation of rural areas.

In rural areas where a large number of people have migrated out, it is even more necessary to study and judge trends, respect laws, concentrate limited resources and financial resources, and give priority to ensuring public services in population-clustered areas, rather than spreading peppercorns everywhere, or ignoring actual hardships , which will adversely affect subsequent work.

  In the comprehensive promotion of rural revitalization, we must also pay attention to the protection and inheritance of rural traditional culture, so as to avoid demolishing it.

There was a classic sentence in the Central Urbanization Work Conference that year, that is, to let residents "see the mountains, see the water, and remember their homesickness." This sentence is also applicable to today's rural construction.