A grain's "industrial chain journey" (in-depth observation)

  In the autumn harvest and winter collection, in the courtyard of the Jiangyuan Modern Agricultural Machinery Farmers Cooperative in Longjiang County, Heilongjiang, piles of golden corn piled up into hills.

"This year's earing period has enough rain, and the corn grows well." Hu Xiangcheng, chairman of the cooperative, picked up a piece of corn. "One ear has 16 rows and 40 layers, and the seed yield rate is very high. The average yield is 1,500 jin per mu."

  Grabbing farming time, preventing diseases and insects, fighting droughts and floods, we have surpassed one obstacle after another. This year, my country's grain production has achieved another bumper harvest. The total output has remained above 1.3 trillion catties for seven consecutive years. The foundation for ensuring supply and stable prices is solid.

  Grain harvests and grains return to warehouses, what forces are behind them to escort?

How does the field connect to the workshop?

How to guarantee the income of grain farmers?

With these questions, the reporter interviewed various business entities in major grain producing areas such as Shandong, Heilongjiang, Anhui, and Jiangsu. They looked at post-production services, looked at purchasing and sales, and looked at the processing chain, from the "industrial chain journey" of a grain of grain. , Observe the "second half" of grain production up close.

  Technology escort "rice bag"

  The harvest of machinery is reduced, the agricultural technology is in place, and the grain production is dry one after another.

  In winter, the north wind blew across the Huanghuaihai Plain, blowing away the moisture in the soil.

  Plowing and dispersing soil moisture and rushing for sowing. In Gedian Village, Jiyang Street, Jiyang District, Jinan City, Shandong Province, members of the Boyong Agricultural Machinery Cooperative rushed to plant the last winter wheat field before the beginning of winter.

"As the saying goes,'a needle of wheat before winter will yield 800 kilograms in the next year.' Don't underestimate the growth potential of wheat!" Cooperative Chairman Kouxi said confidently, "Winter wheat has a long growth period, with more than 230 days. With good technology, the field management in the early stage can keep up, and the output will be no problem."

  "The ground is not frozen, just plant it!" said Jiao Yuyin, director of the Jiyang District Agriculture and Rural Bureau. In order to further improve the quality of winter wheat emergence, Jiyang District implemented seed coating and unified seeding, and distributed 9.2 million catties of high-quality wheat seeds to the village for implementation. At home, reduce the base number of diseases and insect pests in the wheat seedling stage, and instruct farmers to appropriately increase the wheat sowing rate, reasonable dense planting, and increase the application of base fertilizer and base fertilizer to consolidate the growth foundation of winter wheat.

  Grain production is continuous, and autumn and winter planting is the first battle of grain production in the coming year.

Although the continuous rainfall from September to early October this year brought challenges to winter wheat planting in the northern winter wheat area, all parties actively and effectively responded to the fall and winter planting to overcome the adverse effects and make full progress.

  From sowing to harvesting, grain has to go through the test of "Longkou" and "worm mouth" time and time again.

Liu Lihua, deputy director of the Department of Planting Management of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, said that although the local disasters were severe this year, the overall disaster was the least severe compared with the past 10 years, and the grain output of various regions still increased production.

  "This year's 1,100 acres of corn have all returned to the warehouse." Recalling the situation during the autumn harvest, Liu Yanhe, the person in charge of Kunpeng Family Farm in Renfeng Town, Jiyang District, sighed repeatedly. "

  Liu Yanhe frankly said that since September of this year, there have been rainy days after another. In the harvest season, the wheeled harvesters that have shown their skills in previous years have encountered problems.

  Good harvest of food waits for no one!

Jiyang District Agriculture and Rural Affairs Bureau immediately introduced measures to give priority to the purchase of agricultural machinery for crawler corn combine harvesters, and to provide operating subsidies of 50 yuan per mu to relevant entities, and encourage social service organizations to actively purchase and modify crawler harvesters. Take advantage of the opportunity to work in the field to ensure that the collection is fully collected.

  Rush to drain water, modify special grain harvesting platforms, install ear harvesting boards...Agricultural machinery manufacturers, agricultural social service organizations, and agricultural machinery professional cooperatives have formed a joint force, and each combine harvester has transformed and transformed into the "artifact" of this autumn harvest. This solves the problem of farmers’ mechanical harvesting.

  One seed, one seed, it is not easy to plant, and the reduction of machine harvest is also equal to the increase of production.

"We serve farmers one by one, and the loss should be controlled within 3%." Xingan Agricultural Machinery Service Cooperative in Jilin Nong'an County, Xingan Agricultural Machinery Service Professional Cooperative, Wang Xin, who has worked as an agricultural mechanic for 9 years, has rich experience.

Before the autumn harvest this year, he learned a few more tricks from the autumn grain machine harvest meeting organized by the county: wait until the corn kernels are slightly air-dried and thresh when the moisture content is about 25%, so that they are not easy to break; before harvesting, it must be based on the characteristics of the plot. Adjust the parameters such as the picking roller, peeling, threshing, and cleaning appropriately according to the distance between the plant and the plant.

"The job of mechanical harvesting requires both timing and technique. How many ears fall on the ground, the corn leaves are peeled off, and how high the stubble is. Every detail is related to the farmer's harvest."

  Protect arable land and consolidate the foundation of grain production capacity.

In the hinterland of the vast Songnen Plain, the fertile black soil has long been covered with a "thick quilt."

Beginning in 2015, Nong’an County has implemented a corn conservation farming model, which protects the soil and protects moisture by returning all straws to the field and wide-narrowing operations.

  "You take a look, the corn leaves are still green before harvesting, which is called mature live stalks." Wang Shanggan, chairman of the Xingan Agricultural Machinery Service Cooperative, pointed to the phone photo, and said with a sense of accomplishment, "The corn ears are mature. Later, the leaves continue to photosynthesize, which can make the grains firmer and prevent premature aging and lodging." This year the cooperative’s "circulation + service" area totals 400 垧 (1 垧 in the northeast region is 15 acres), preliminary estimates, the average yield per 垧Between 27,000 catties and 28,000 catties.

Wang Shanggan said, "Another harvest year!"

  Policy to instigate a "pocket"

  The buying and selling market is stable, the post-production service is attentive, and multiple measures are taken to increase the income of grain farmers

  Grain purchases, storage, purchases and sales are in full swing. After a busy year, the farmers returned to the rice bags and weighed the money bags.

  Can harvest grains be sold at a good price?

This is the most concerned thing for grain farmers.

  “Some time ago, I sold some corn at 80 cents per catty. Now there are still 50 tons in the warehouse. I will sell it later.” As in previous years, Liu Yanhe wanted to wait for the market outlook after the autumn grains were weighed.

  According to industry insiders, due to weather and other factors, the corn market this year has been delayed by 10 to 15 days compared with previous years.

As the purchase of autumn grain enters the peak season, the prices of rice and corn have fallen.

  In order to protect the income of grain farmers, the implementation plan for the minimum purchase price of rice has been launched in Anhui, Jiangxi, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Heilongjiang and other provinces.

The plan stipulates that the minimum purchase prices for third-class mid-late indica rice and japonica rice produced in 2021 are 1.28 yuan and 1.3 yuan per catty, respectively.

The minimum purchase price of mid-late indica rice rose by 0.01 yuan per catty compared with last year.

  Ensure sufficient funds for the acquisition.

"Combined with the province's grain output, we will arrange 80 billion yuan of credit funds this year to support the purchase of autumn grains, including policy-based acquisition funds of 50 billion yuan and market-oriented acquisition funds of 30 billion yuan, and we will do our best to ensure the supply of funds." People introduced.

From a national perspective, from October 1 to November 21 this year, the Agricultural Development Bank of China issued a total of 92.13 billion yuan in loans for the purchase of autumn grain, cotton and oil.

Among them, 43.918 billion yuan was allocated for grain and oil purchase loans, accounting for 27% of the grain and oil purchase loan plan for the entire purchase season.

  Improving the post-production service system is also an important part of helping farmers increase their income.

  Early in the morning, in the drying workshop of Jiangyuan Grease Company in Longjiang County, a grain drying unit over 10 meters in height was running thunderously.

Huang Chengcheng’s corn is transported to the drying tower by a hoist, and after a series of cycles of drying and cooling, it is poured out from the discharge port and sent directly to the granary via a conveyor.

  “Due to the weather this year, the moisture content of the corn harvested generally exceeds 35%. It is estimated that the demand for grain drying will be strong in the later period.” said Kong Fancheng, the person in charge of Jiangyuan Oil Company. As a large grain storage and trading company, the company has large drying equipment4 Sets, running at full capacity for 24 hours during peak periods, can dry 4,000 tons of grain a day; more than 40 vertical silos can meet the needs of 500,000 tons of grain storage.

  In the eyes of farmers, Jiangyuan Oil Company is the "grain bank" at their doorstep.

"The harvested rice and corn are transported to the grain depot in advance. After the grade is confirmed, they are immediately sent to dry storage. When the price is good, I will sell it again." Taking advantage of the fine weather, Hu Xiangcheng was too late to have lunch, so he packed a full one. When the car is new, I rush to the company, "The grain truck can be completed in less than 40 minutes from registration, sampling, testing, weighing, and unloading. We are an old customer, and the storage is free for the first 3 months!"

  In Shandong, social services also help farmers solve their worries.

“The company conducts on-site purchases based on differences in moisture and impurities at the ground, and timely drying and storage of tidal grains.” said Li Hui, head of the Win-Win Agricultural Service Company. “Although the cost is higher than usual, it can ensure the quality of the grain returned to the warehouse. "

  Data show that during the 13th Five-Year Plan period, my country allocated 2.9 billion yuan from the central government to subsidize the purchase of 77,000 grain dryers, benefiting more than 30,000 farmers and agricultural production and operation organizations.

During the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, my country will also accelerate the cultivation of diversified market purchase and sales entities, improve the grain post-production service system, and strengthen the leading role of leading enterprises.

  Make good use of hosting services and seek benefits from scale.

Li Wenzhi, a farmer in Nantaizi Village, Qingshankou Township, Nong'an County, Jilin, gave the entire family's two lands to the agricultural machinery cooperative. He calculated the account: From the perspective of output, the cooperative adopts protective farming, and the yield of one lands increased by more than 1,000 jin compared with the past. From the perspective of investment, due to the unified bulk purchase of agricultural materials by the cooperative, plus the country's full-course trusteeship subsidy, the service fee for a custody service is only 1,000 yuan, which saves more than 800 yuan compared to own farming.

"The price of corn this year is higher than that of the same period last year, and it can be sold for 95 cents on open scales. In a package, the income has increased by more than 2,000 yuan than before the trusteeship." Li Wenzhi said.

  Create green agriculture and increase income.

The 100-mu rice-fish co-cultivation base in Shenguan Village, Eshan She Nationality Township, Tonglu County, Zhejiang, has just ushered in a bumper harvest not long ago.

"The harvest per mu is more than 1,000 catties of rice and more than 260 catties of rice flower fish. The heaviest fish is two catties!" Huang Jinyuan, secretary of the Party branch of Shenguan Village, smiled from ear to ear. "The market price of green rice is high. The income per mu can reach 10,000 yuan."

  Optimize the structure and improve the ability to resist risks.

In Liu Yanhe’s family farm, there are 60 to 70 acres of land dedicated to experimenting with new varieties.

"The ones I have planted now are all the fine varieties I have selected. There was more rain this summer, and the varieties I selected performed outstandingly, with fuller grains than other varieties. Next year, they will expand by 100 acres." Liu Yanhe said.

  Special subsidies are strong to alleviate the pressure of rising costs.

Since the beginning of the year, the prices of agricultural materials such as fertilizers and diesel have generally risen.

In order to stabilize the income of farmers, the central government has issued a one-time subsidy of 20 billion yuan for actual grain farmers. The three major grain-producing counties in the major grain-producing provinces promote complete cost insurance and planting income insurance for the three major grain crops, stabilizing expectations and promoting income growth.

  Production and sales form a "long chain"

  Lengthen the grain industry chain and demand benefits from standardization and branding

  "The freshly beaten millet has a taste of the field." Approaching the modern glutinous rice processing line of Guowu Cereals and Oils Industry and Trade Co., Ltd. in Fengtai County, Anhui, the fresh scent of new rice is refreshing.

The rice grains after three cleaning processes enter the rice hulling machine in batches, and after peeling off the shells, they are milled six times, and the white rice grains are immediately in front of you.

  "This batch of glutinous rice is of good quality." Zhu Litao, the company's technical director, grabbed a handful of rice and said, "Look, after removing the bran, the rice grains are round and firm, basically whole grains, and the rice output rate should be about 70%." According to reports, these rice will go through a series of "dressing" such as sieve grading, color selection to remove yellow, flour, and packaging.

  Processing enterprises are an important link in the grain industry chain, connecting farmers at the top and the market at the bottom.

"We are taking the route of standardized production and branded sales." said Xu Guowu, general manager of Guowu Grain and Oil Industry and Trade Co., Ltd.. The company has purchased modern rice-making equipment and expanded its reproduction; the development of "Xuqiao" brand series of glutinous rice products has passed Certified by the National Green Food Center, selling well in the national market.

  “This year, the production line is basically operating at full capacity 24 hours a day, processing 900 tons of raw grain a day.” Zhu Litao introduced that the current selling price of glutinous rice per ton is 4,700 yuan. According to the 67% rice output rate, the profit is Around 200 yuan, about 100 yuan higher than similar products on the market.

Last year, the company's sales reached 600 million yuan.

  How do processing companies guarantee the supply of raw grains?

In Zhumadian Town, Fengtai County, 150,000 acres of green food base is located here. It is one of the country's three major indica glutinous rice production bases and the main raw grain base of Guowu Cereals and Oils Company.

  Order-to-order agriculture creates an industrial chain of production and sales.

"Good rice can be sold without worry, and orders will be more reliable." Chen Chuan'an, chairman of the Fengtai County Nongpan Rice Machine Inserting Service Professional Cooperative, is a well-known local "nanny". He told the secret of growing grain: "As early as the beginning of the year. , We signed a purchase order with Guowu Cereals and Oils. According to this year’s market, the purchase price is 1.6 yuan per catty, which is 0.2 yuan higher than the market price. The cooperative has transferred more than 140 acres of land this year and hosted more than 1,300 acres, all of which are planted with high-quality glutinous rice varieties. 263 households increase their income together."

  High quality and good price form a virtuous circle.

“Non-nitrogen fertilizer should not be too much at the time of ear production, which will affect the rate of rice production. This year there is more rain and one more pest control.” Speaking of farming skills, Chen Chuan’an has a lot of experience. The number of grains has gone up, and the yield per mu has reached 1,200 jin. Everyone is very satisfied."

  In addition to taking the brand route, extending the industrial chain is also a good way to add value to food.

Last year, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs issued the "Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Reduction of Damage and Increased Efficiency in the Processing of Agricultural Products", which emphasized that agricultural product processing should be "rough to coarse, fine to fine, early to early, and deep to deep", and guide agricultural product processing enterprises. Reasonably determine the processing accuracy of ration varieties such as wheat and rice, and encourage the promotion of comprehensive utilization of grain and oil by-products.

  "I grew up in a grain pile. My hometown, Sihong, is very suitable for growing rice, but rice or rice is usually supplied to the market. The profits left to farmers and grain companies are very limited." Manager Zhao Dongdong is a "post-85" who has returned to his hometown to start a business. After repeatedly inspecting the market, he decided to introduce rice by-products for deep processing.

  How long can the rice deep processing chain be extended?

"It can be said that all rice is a treasure." Zhao Dongdong reveals the layers of veil inside the rice——

  After 100 kilograms of rice are processed, except for a small amount of loss, 68 kilograms of rice, 8 kilograms of rice bran, 1 kilogram of broken rice, and 18 kilograms of rice husk can be produced.

After puffing and leaching rice bran, 15.5% crude oil and by-product bran meal can be produced; crude oil is purified to obtain 70% refined oil.

"During this process, a series of products such as fatty acids, rice bran oil saponins, rice bran wax, etc. will also be produced, each with its own uses. If you continue to refine, you can also produce oryzanol, a medical product." Zhao Dongdong is like a few treasures.

  There are many processes, how about the profit?

Zhao Dongdong’s processing account is clear: rice husks are sold to feed companies for at least 1 yuan per catty; rice husks are sold to local power plants for 250 yuan per ton; rice oil on the market can be sold for 8 yuan per catty.

After deducting the cost of about 1 yuan per catty for rice bran processing, the value-added income of 80 to 96 yuan per ton of rice can be realized through by-product processing.

At present, the company's annual output value of rice reaches 400 million yuan, and the annual output value of rice oil is about 40 million yuan.

  "The initial investment in rice deep processing is large, but the prospects are promising. When the profits go up, we also have to give farmers peace of mind. Now the purchase price of a catty of high-quality rice is 2 cents higher than the market price. The chain of interests is tightly bound, and the industrial chain can last. "The bottle of rice oil in his hand is golden, and Zhao Dongdong's eyes are also full of hope.

  Let the food industry chain produce more benefits (reporter's notes)

  The grains are full of ears, and new grains are happy to enter the warehouse.

  This is the most comfortable time of the year for farmers.

Withstanding the adverse weather effects, preventing pests and diseases, ending the tense field busyness, finally ushered in a heavy harvest.

  This is also the beginning of a new round of peak operations for many grain enterprises.

Timely docking of high-quality grain sources, reducing circulation losses, and doing everything possible to improve processing efficiency, the second half of grain production has just begun.

  The warehouse is real, and the world is safe.

The food supply chain is connected to the farmers at one end and the dining table at the other end.

Improving the quality and efficiency of the grain industry is not only conducive to protecting and mobilizing the enthusiasm of the production entities in all links, but also filling our rice bowls with more good grain.

In recent years, aiming to straighten out the grain industry chain, institutional supply has been continuously strengthened.

On the one hand, improve the price formation mechanism of agricultural products, encourage multiple entities to participate in market-oriented purchases, continue to implement the minimum purchase price policy for wheat and rice, and stabilize the income of grain farmers; on the other hand, continue to improve the post-production service system to promote grain production, purchase and storage. The synergistic linkage of “up-sales” is becoming smoother and more efficient.

  To make the food industry chain produce more benefits, farmers and enterprises themselves are also taking the initiative.

Carrying out structural reforms on the agricultural supply side, growing more green and high-quality grains in the fields; promoting the comprehensive processing and utilization of by-products, extending the industrial chain, and increasing the value chain, and the value of a grain of grain has changed a few times.

During the interview, the reporter was pleased to see that new agricultural business entities such as cooperatives and social service organizations have made full use of the advantages of scale and organization to not only drive farmers to adjust and adapt to new production methods, and promote cost-saving and efficiency-saving, but also The upstream and downstream of the industrial chain match up, build a close interest linkage mechanism, and form a virtuous circle of high-quality food and high-priced food.

  Grain production is connected with stubble, and the industrial chain is intertwined.

Year after year, bumper harvests to ensure supply and stable prices come from such a relay season after season.

It is expected that the grain industry chain will continue to expand and produce more tangible benefits.

  Data source: Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, China Agricultural Development Bank, etc.

  Layout design: Zhang Fangman