As an important part of the ecological civilization system, the ecological protection compensation system is an important means to implement ecological protection rights and responsibilities, mobilize the enthusiasm of all parties to participate in ecological protection, and promote the construction of ecological civilization.

Recently, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council issued the "Opinions on Deepening the Reform of the Ecological Protection Compensation System", clarifying that my country will deepen the reform of the ecological protection compensation system in terms of improving the classification compensation system, improving the comprehensive compensation system, and giving play to the role of the market mechanism. Road map and timetable.

Adhere to the systematic promotion of policy coordination

  The construction of ecological compensation mechanism in my country has gone through many years of practice. The ecological compensation mechanism has been established in 7 areas of forest, grassland, wetland, desert, ocean, water flow, and cultivated land, and has achieved positive results.

At the same time, there are also problems such as limited compensation coverage, insufficient policy focus, weak rewards and punishments, and difficulty in coordination between relevant entities.

On May 21 this year, the 19th meeting of the Central Committee for Comprehensive Deepening Reform deliberated and approved the "Opinions on Deepening the Reform of the Ecological Protection Compensation System."

  "The "Opinions" embodies the strategic intent of the party and the country to build an ecological civilization system, implement rights and responsibilities, and mobilize the enthusiasm of all parties. It is another important policy document for green development after my country proposed the carbon peak and carbon neutral goal. "He Daixin, director of the Financial Research Office of the Institute of Financial Strategy, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said.

  Regarding the reform goals, the "Opinions" make it clear that by 2025, the ecological protection and compensation system commensurate with economic and social development will be basically complete.

The classification compensation system based on the cost of ecological protection is becoming more and more perfect, the comprehensive compensation system based on the basic orientation of improving the public service guarantee ability is constantly improved, and the market-oriented and diversified compensation pattern based on the principle of beneficiary payment has taken shape. The whole society The enthusiasm for participating in ecological protection has been significantly increased, and a situation of positive interaction between ecological protectors and beneficiaries has basically taken shape.

By 2035, the ecological protection and compensation system that meets the requirements of ecological civilization construction in the new era will be basically finalized.

  "The document puts forward a more comprehensive policy framework for the classified compensation system and the comprehensive compensation system, and proposes to gradually explore the overall protection mode, and it is clearly necessary to combine the multiple ecological environment elements coexisting in the space to make a systematic plan, which reflects the policy thinking of systematic advancement. Aimed at practice It is prone to multi-sectoral phenomenon in China. It is proposed to strengthen communication and coordination between departments to avoid repeated compensation; strengthen the synergistic effect of reform through legal guarantees, policy support and technical support." Research Center for Resources, Environment and Ecological Civilization, Chinese Academy of Fiscal Sciences Researcher Fan Yixia said.

  At the same time, the new policy embodies the orientation of "strengthening incentives and hardening constraints", clearly defines the rights and obligations of all parties, and realizes that benefits correspond to compensation, and the right to compensation matches the fulfillment of protection obligations.

"For example, the "Opinions" proposes to increase support for some areas with important ecological functions, and also proposes to appropriately reduce the scale of compensation funds for the development of industries that destroy the ecological environment in areas with important ecological functions." Fan Yixia said.

Pay attention to the role of market mechanism

  The "Opinions" proposed that the government should give full play to the leading role of the government in developing ecological protection compensation and fulfilling the responsibility of ecological protection, actively guiding the participation of all parties in the society, promoting market-oriented and diversified compensation practices; gradually improving the government's strong leadership, orderly participation of the society, and effective market Regulated ecological protection compensation system mechanism.

  In recent years, my country has accelerated the establishment and improvement of a vertical and horizontal ecological compensation mechanism.

Statistics show that from 2016 to 2020, the central government will allocate 352.4 billion yuan in transfer payments for key ecological function zones. On the basis of achieving full coverage of prohibited development areas and restricted development areas, the central government will increase the depth of the "three districts and three states". Support for areas with important ecological functions such as poverty-stricken areas, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, and Yangtze River Economic Belt.

In addition, inter-provincial horizontal ecological protection mechanisms have been established in trans-provincial river basins such as Xin'an River, Chishui River, Youshui River, and Chu River.

  Fan Yixia believes that the "Opinions" embodies the combination of promotion experience and exploration mechanism.

"For example, the "Xin'an River Model" of cross-provincial river basin horizontal ecological compensation has been promoted and applied in many areas. The document proposes a sound horizontal compensation mechanism and summarizes and promotes mature experience. At the same time, the document mentions encouraging local exploration of the atmosphere, etc. Other eco-environmental elements horizontal ecological protection compensation methods; gradually explore the evaluation of budgetary expenditures in terms of ecological and environmental protection. These innovative explorations will promote the improvement of my country's diversified and market-oriented ecological compensation system at different levels." Fan Yixia said.

  It is worth noting that the "Opinions" set out special provisions on the role of market mechanisms and accelerating the promotion of diversified compensation, clearly "a reasonable definition of ecological environmental rights, in accordance with the principle of beneficiaries pay, and promote ecological protection through a market-oriented and diversified approach. The interests of the owners are effectively compensated, and the enthusiasm of the whole society to participate in ecological protection is stimulated."

  For example, regarding the improvement of the market transaction mechanism, the "Opinions" require that under the premise of scientifically and rationally controlling the total amount, an initial allocation system for water rights, pollution emission rights, and carbon emission rights should be established; market-oriented environmental rights trading should be gradually carried out; and the construction of national energy consumption should be accelerated. Rights and carbon emission rights trading market.

  "The ecological protection compensation system must achieve a better combination of an effective market and a promising government. The ecological protection compensation itself embodies the economic costs and benefits. It no longer solves the ecological protection problem entirely through government means, but through a more transparent and quantitative market mechanism. Implement and establish a multi-party compensation mechanism." He Daixin said.

Fiscal, taxation and financial tools work together

  The "Opinions" put forward a series of measures to expand market-oriented financing channels.

For example, research and develop financing tools based on various resources and environmental rights such as water rights, pollution rights, and carbon emission rights, establish green stock indexes, and develop carbon emission rights futures trading; encourage banking financial institutions to provide green credits that meet the characteristics of green project financing Services; encourage qualified non-financial enterprises and institutions to issue green bonds; encourage insurance institutions to develop innovative green insurance products to participate in ecological protection compensation.

  Fan Yixia analyzed that carbon emission rights trading is an important system to promote greenhouse gas emission reduction by market means. The spot market is a place where carbon emission rights allowances are bought and sold. “The establishment of the futures market is mainly to make use of its price discovery and hedging. It can effectively hedge against spot market risks and improve the efficiency of the carbon emission trading system.”

  "On the basis of further improving the transfer payment system, giving play to the role of the financial market and introducing ecological product transactions can more efficiently reflect the value of ecological construction. The combination of fiscal policy and financial tools is conducive to accelerating the promotion of diversified compensation." He Daixin Say.

  Regarding the regulation function of fiscal and taxation policies, the "Opinions" clarified that the regulation role of resource tax, environmental protection tax and other related taxes and fees for ecological and environmental protection and the regulation of land, minerals, ocean and other natural resource asset income management systems; continue to promote the reform of water resources tax; Implement tax preferential policies in related fields such as energy conservation and environmental protection, new energy, and ecological construction; implement government green procurement policies and establish green procurement guidance mechanisms.

  "The improvement and implementation of fiscal and taxation policies such as tax adjustment and government procurement will play a strong guiding role in the low-carbon transformation of the entire society and help achieve the goal of carbon peak and carbon neutrality." Fan Yixia said.

(Economic Daily reporter Zeng Jinhua)

Keywords: