Our reporter Lu Chengkuan

  In 2019, the Ministry of Science and Technology and relevant departments established 20 national scientific data centers in the fields of high-energy physics, genomics, meteorology, earthquake, and ocean based on the foundation of previous work.

These data centers have become important infrastructure and carriers in terms of realizing data sharing, supporting technological innovation, and strengthening international cooperation.

  Recently, the first scientific research equipment of the high-energy synchrotron radiation light source (HEPS) has begun to be installed, and the scientific data management service system developed by the National High Energy Physics Science Data Center for the research and development of high-energy light sources has also made important progress.

The test platform of the scientific data management service system began to run, realizing the full life cycle data service from data acquisition, transmission, analysis, long-term preservation to the release of results.

  In 2019, the Ministry of Science and Technology and relevant departments established 20 national scientific data centers in the fields of high-energy physics, genomics, meteorology, earthquake, and ocean based on the foundation of previous work.

In terms of realizing data sharing, supporting technological innovation, and strengthening international cooperation, the National High Energy Physics Science Data Center, the National Earth Observation Science Data Center, the National Earth System Science Data Center, the National Ocean Science Data Center, and the National Glacier and Permafrost and Desert Science Data Center Etc. has become an important infrastructure and carrier.

  Move forward to get through data sharing blockages

  Scientific data sharing is an important part of the construction of my country's national scientific and technological innovation system, and it is also an important foundation for scientific and technological innovation and economic and social development in the era of big data.

  In the field of high energy physics, most of the projects involve major national scientific and technological infrastructure and large-scale experiments.

These projects often have long periods and huge amounts of data, requiring large-scale data sharing and transmission and data processing.

  The National High Energy Physics Science Data Center began to participate in the design and planning of data generation, data processing, data collection and sharing, software tools, etc., at the beginning of the project, and negotiated with scientists (data producers and data users) to determine the data Format, storage access mode, long-term data storage strategy, data sharing mechanism, etc. At the same time, according to the characteristics of data use, the computing resource platform required for data processing and the high-speed network link required for data transmission and sharing are designed and established.

The advancement of work has ensured that the scientific project integrates data production, data exchange, and data services from the very beginning.

  In 2019, under the guidance of the Expert Committee, the National Data Center for High Energy Physics will organize experts in the field of high energy physics to compare the development direction of related international data centers, and evaluate and build the national high energy physics scientific data based on the characteristics of the experimental equipment in the field of high energy physics in China. Data resource catalog system.

Data resources include four main parts: high-energy physics data, neutron science data, photonic science data, and astrophysics data.

According to the research statistics of the cooperation group, the National High Energy Physics Science Data Center directly or indirectly serves scientific research institutions and teams from 74 countries, more than 1,000, in order to discover the highest-energy photons that humans have observed so far, and solve the mystery of the origin of fast radio bursts. The development of new materials has provided important support.

  At the same time, the National High Energy Physics Science Data Center cooperated with domestic and foreign counterparts to establish a distributed data management and sharing system.

According to the experimental data of the Large Hadron Collider LHC, a data grid has been jointly established with more than 100 international data centers.

  Provide sufficient "food" for scientific research

  In order to improve scientific data resources and sharing service capabilities, establish a sustainable development mechanism for scientific data sharing, and provide basic support for scientific research, the Science Data Center, as a public welfare national-level scientific big data facility, has been established successively in different fields.

  The National Earth System Science Data Center mainly provides scientific data support and data services for basic research and frontier innovation of the Earth system science.

As of the end of December 2020, the National Earth System Science Data Center has opened up to share more than 36,000 data sets, with data resources exceeding 2.14PB, and providing data services for 9,935 major scientific research projects/topics.

  From the perspective of the scientific research output of the service, data open sharing mainly serves scientific research projects (topics), academic papers, monographs and atlases, etc. It also includes supporting software copyright patents, awards, standards and other related achievements.

For example, from 2018 to 2019, the scientific research team of Academician Liu Xu of the Chinese Academy of Engineering conducted strategic research on key regional issues such as the theoretical practice of the two mountains and the comprehensive management of the development environment. The National Earth System Science Data Center continued to track the progress of the project and assist the team in completing the construction of ecological resources. Research on asset accounting index system, etc., supported the publication of 5 monographs on the project.

  The National Earth Observation Science Data Center was established based on the Institute of Aerospace Information Innovation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. It is jointly constructed by more than a dozen national and industrial remote sensing data centers. There are currently 18 data resource sub-center units, which basically cover the scale of my country. The civil, commercial, scientific research satellite data management and information product production units in China have initially established a data governance and service standard system covering the entire life cycle of remote sensing data.

  The International Major Disaster Data Assistance Mechanism (CDDR) initiated and led by the National Earth Observation Scientific Data Center and the National Comprehensive Earth Observation Data Sharing Platform, coordinated my country’s civil and commercial high-resolution satellite resources, and dealt with floods in Iran and dam failure in Uzbekistan in 2020 , Beirut port explosion in Lebanon, floods in Colombia, Typhoon Yassa in Fiji and other major international disasters carried out emergency response, which received great attention and evaluation from the international community; in 2020, my country launched data emergency response work during the flood disaster, and quickly organized basic geographic data, More than 100 data sets such as local socioeconomic data and remote sensing data before the disaster, and coordinated multiple satellite agencies to dynamically provide a large amount of remote sensing data after the disaster.

  In response to the new crown pneumonia epidemic, the National Earth Observation Science Data Center and Wuhan University jointly carried out the "Wuhan closed city for 76 days remote sensing documentary" work, coordinated and organized more than 30 satellites to conduct 120 observations during the closed city, for Wuhan's anti-epidemic work has provided a large amount of decision-making data support; in response to the anti-epidemic call of the Earth Observation Organization (GEO), the standardization and release of 15 scientific research teams carried out by Chinese scientists based on space technology have been published.

  Provide accurate data for technological innovation

  In terms of marine science data sharing, the National Marine Science Data Center has integrated 9 major survey data including marine hydrology, meteorology, biology, and chemistry, and developed data products such as marine environmental statistical analysis, real-life analysis and re-analysis, as well as marine economy and sea areas. Thematic information products such as islands and marine disasters cover the global sea area with a complete range of data types.

  In terms of service scientific research, the National Marine Science Data Center has developed a global high-resolution ice-sea coupled reanalysis system CORA2.0, which has produced a global 9,000-meter horizontal resolution of climatic sea surface height, three-dimensional thermosalt and ocean current products. Grasping the laws of ocean climate change and reducing the risk of ocean disasters provide scientific support.

In terms of serving the development and utilization of marine resources, the “Zhihaibao Offshore Environment Online Monitoring System” has completed the third-generation upgrade. It has the characteristics of continuous and uninterrupted monitoring of vertical sea temperature data profiles, and provides convenient services for marine fishery production. ; Relying on hundreds of offshore platform observation platforms, carry out long-term refined ocean currents, waves and typhoon field observation and forecast product research and development, to provide accurate services for offshore oil platform production and ship navigation.

In terms of supporting government decision-making, a dataset of offshore wind power projects in the East China Sea has been developed, which reflects the life cycle trajectory information of wind power station construction, operation, and decommissioning, and provides decision-making basis for government departments to develop and utilize offshore wind energy.

  Jiang Xiaoyi, head of the National Marine Science Data Center team, said: "Through the construction and operation of the Marine Science Data Center, various marine information resources have been integrated and activated, and the effectiveness of the application services of scientific and technological resources has been greatly improved, providing strong support for the high-quality development of the ocean. service."

  About two-thirds of my country's land area is a cold and arid area with surface features such as glaciers, permafrost, deserts, deserts, salt lakes, oasis, grasslands, etc. This area is a strategic place connecting my country's inland and Central Asian countries. It is also a reserve base for water, energy, and mineral resources. The ecological environment is extremely fragile. It is a key area for my country's poverty alleviation, ecological civilization and rural revitalization strategy.

The National Glacier, Frozen Soil and Desert Science Data Center serves the Bao-Lan Railway, Qinghai-Tibet Railway and Heihe Major Research Projects and other projects. It also provides basic data and scientific decision-making for the "Yu-Kun High-speed Railway Line Selection" and contributes to the disaster mechanism of the "China-Pakistan Economic Corridor". "Research and Observation and Early Warning" and "Soil and Water Conservation and Governance in the Upper and Middle Reaches of the Yellow River" provide thematic data services, providing important support for technological innovation, economic and social development, and national strategies.