Regarding employment, there is a problem that has always plagued certain economists.
There is a view that every new percentage point of China's GDP can support 2 million jobs.
In 2020, with a GDP growth rate of 2.3%, how can China support 11.86 million new jobs?
In 2021, the goal of creating more than 11 million new jobs has been set. How is China going to achieve it?
The experience of Hu Guozhen, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and deputy governor of Qiandongnan Prefecture, Guizhou Province, provides an explanation for this problem.
In the past, about 1 million people went out to work in the Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture every year. In the past few years, many clothing, luggage, and agricultural products processing enterprises have moved from the eastern and central regions.
Hu Guozhen said that after the introduction of these companies, many young people can work in front of their homes.
During her investigation in Sansui County, Qiandongnan Prefecture, she found that a clothing company relocating from Zhejiang has solved nearly half of the employment in a relocation site for poverty alleviation and relocation of tens of thousands of people.
"I asked the workers casually. Many people said that they have an income of several thousand yuan a month and it is very convenient to take care of their children." Hu Guozhen said that by stabilizing the manufacturing industry, most people's jobs can basically be stabilized.
China has become the world's largest manufacturing country for 11 consecutive years. The huge manufacturing industry has solved most people's job problems.
Wen Zongyu, director of the State-owned Assets Management and Capital Operation Research Center of the Academy of Fiscal Sciences, has conducted surveys in many manufacturing companies. He found that the manufacturing industry not only solves a huge amount of employment, but also provides a relatively rich salary environment.
"Young people who have just stepped out of school have the illusion that modern service industries such as financial securities and the Internet have higher incomes. However, based on actual data and research, many high-income positions are concentrated in manufacturing companies." According to Wen Zongyu According to the data tracked by the team, many college students five years after graduation can be promoted to middle-level positions in manufacturing companies.
For example, among leading manufacturing companies such as Gree and Midea, there are many companies with an annual salary of more than 300,000 yuan.
In the manufacturing industry, Wen Zongyu emphatically mentioned emerging manufacturing companies, and the development of these companies in the past two years has surprised him.
During the investigation, he found that China's emerging manufacturing companies are developing rapidly, and the talent gap is even greater.
"They pay more for young people, and there is more room for income growth in the future."
Wen Zongyu said that if young people can closely integrate their work with the high-quality development of China's economy in the future and the expansion and strengthening of China's manufacturing industry, they will have more opportunities and a sense of accomplishment.
However, some scholars have pointed out that the current manufacturing industry is facing a structural contradiction in which "difficulties in employment" and "talent shortage" coexist.
Some time ago, there was an unexpected scene in Guangzhou: On a street, the owner of a garment factory held clothes samples and held a card to recruit workers, which was completely different from ten years ago.
The "Manufacturing Talent Development Planning Guide" jointly issued by the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, and the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology pointed out that by 2025, the talent gap in the top ten key areas of the manufacturing industry in the country will be close to 30 million.
Dai Tianfang, a deputy to the National People's Congress and chief technician of the Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation, believes that with the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry, there may be essential differences between skilled workers in the future and today.
"Its inheritance method may be subverted, and the inheritance of masters and apprentices, people and people will become learning through the Internet and the cloud."
Yang Guoqiang, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and Chairman of the Board of Directors of Country Garden Group, believes that with the in-depth development of scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation, China has turned to a stage of high-quality development. High-quality technical and technical personnel are facing a serious shortage, but the recognition of vocational education in the society is still On the low side, there is a concept that children must go to university to study undergraduates to become talents. Especially in some underdeveloped areas, there is a phenomenon that they would rather let their children work than go to vocational schools.
He believes that as China's industrial upgrading and economic restructuring continue to accelerate, there is still a certain deviation in the adaptability of vocational education and industrial development.
Yao Jinbo, representative of the National People’s Congress and CEO of 58.com, found that compared with the huge market demand, the number of enterprises participating in vocational education is still relatively insufficient. The main reason is the lack of laws, regulations and policies, the unclear form of corporate benefits, and the process of applying for school qualifications. Long time, leading to low enthusiasm and initiative of enterprises to cooperate in running schools.
Yao Jinbo noted that the "National Vocational Education Reform Implementation Plan" clearly stated that "support and standardize the establishment of vocational education and training by social forces, and encourage the development of joint-stock, mixed-ownership and other vocational colleges and various vocational training institutions."
However, the specific implementation measures have not been introduced.
He suggested that the competent departments of education, development and reform, and taxation should introduce supporting policies to support enterprises that organize and participate in vocational education in the form of purchasing services, tax reductions, etc.; implement a task-based training model oriented to the real production environment of enterprises, and encourage schools Co-build and share training bases with enterprises to improve the quality of talent training and better meet the needs of enterprises for high-skilled talents.
China Youth Daily·China Youth Daily reporter Wang Lin and Ma Yuping Source: China Youth Daily