Writing extraordinary answers in extraordinary years

——Comments on the 2020 Statistical Bulletin of National Economic and Social Development

Sheng Laiyun, Deputy Director of the National Bureau of Statistics

  2020 is an extraordinary year in the history of New China.

Facing the severe and complex domestic and international environment, especially the severe impact of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core, all regions and departments have resolutely implemented the Party Central Committee’s decisions and arrangements, and scientifically coordinated epidemic prevention and control and economic society Development, solidly do the work of "six stability", fully implement the tasks of "six guarantees", economic operation has recovered steadily and better than expected, the development goals and tasks have been fully completed, the "13th Five-Year Plan" has successfully concluded, and the victory of building a well-off society in an all-round way is in sight .

The "Statistical Communiqué on National Economic and Social Development in 2020", released as scheduled, comprehensively showcases the great achievements that the people of the country have made in the past year, which have attracted the attention of the world and can be recorded in the annals of history. It is hard-won and inspiring.

1. Overall planning of epidemic prevention and control and economic and social development have achieved major strategic results, and the total economic volume has reached a new level

  In the past year, the new crown pneumonia epidemic has not been encountered in a century, and the world economy has been in deep recession, with unprecedented multiple shocks.

In the face of major challenges, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core insisted that the people are supreme and life is supreme, took extraordinary actions to deal with extraordinary things, built a strong line of defense for epidemic prevention and control, coordinated economic and social development work, and achieved the first control. The remarkable achievements of the epidemic, the first to resume work and production, and the first to achieve positive economic growth have demonstrated the strong resilience and shock resistance of my country's economy.

  The total economic volume exceeded the one-hundred-billion mark.

The annual gross domestic product reached 101.6 trillion yuan, an increase of 2.3% over the previous year. It is the only major economy in the world that has achieved positive economic growth.

Based on the annual average exchange rate, my country's total economy will account for more than 17% of the world economy in 2020.

The economy has recovered and is at the forefront of the world. In the first quarter of the GDP, the growth rate changed from negative to positive by 3.2%, 4.9% in the third quarter, and 6.5% in the fourth quarter. The V-shaped curve has become the main force driving the recovery of the global economy.

  The three industries are fully restored.

The added value of the primary industry for the year increased by 3.0% over the previous year, of which the output of pig, beef, mutton and poultry reached 76.39 million tons.

The newly increased irrigated area of ​​cultivated land was 430,000 hectares, and the newly increased area of ​​high-efficiency water-saving irrigation was 1.6 million hectares.

The added value of the secondary industry increased by 2.6% over the previous year.

The added value of high-tech manufacturing above designated size increased by 7.1%, accounting for 15.1% of the added value of industries above designated size, an increase of 0.7 percentage points over the previous year.

The added value of the tertiary industry increased by 2.1% over the previous year and accounted for 54.5% of GDP, an increase of 0.2% over the previous year, of which the information transmission, software and information technology service industries increased by 16.9%.

  The foundation for development continued to strengthen.

The new high-speed railway was put into operation throughout the year with a mileage of 2,521 kilometers, and the main frame of the “four vertical and four horizontal” high-speed railways was fully completed.

The newly rebuilt expressway has a mileage of 12,713 kilometers, and the newly-increased throughput capacity of the port's 10,000-ton-class berth is 30.56 million tons per year.

The large-scale commercial use of 5G was fully launched, and the national Internet penetration rate reached 70.4% at the end of the year. The annual mobile Internet user access traffic was 165.6 billion GB, an increase of 35.7% over the previous year.

At the end of the year, the country’s installed power generation capacity exceeded 2.2 billion kilowatts, an increase of 9.5% over the end of the previous year.

2. "Six Stability" and "Six Guarantees" are powerful and effective, and the economic fundamentals are firmly consolidated

  In the past year, the epidemic has affected all economic and social aspects such as industrial development, business operations, employment and people's livelihood.

The Party Central Committee and the State Council reviewed the situation, fully estimated the difficulties, risks and uncertainties, strengthened the bottom line thinking, and strengthened the response to the macro policy in a timely manner. All regions and departments have done a solid job of the "six stability" and fully implemented the tasks of the "six guarantees". Orderly resumption of work and production, vigorously assisted enterprises to relieve their difficulties, actively stabilized jobs and expanded employment, secured the basic livelihood of the people, stabilized the economic fundamentals, and maintained overall social stability.

  It is solid and effective to ensure employment and basic people's livelihood.

11.86 million new jobs were created in urban areas throughout the year, exceeding the target set at the beginning of the year.

At the end of the year, the nationwide urban surveyed unemployment rate was 5.2%, and the urban registered unemployment rate was 4.2%, both of which were lower than expected targets.

Consumer prices rose by an average of 2.5% throughout the year, which was lower than the expected target of around 3.5%.

The production of live pigs has gradually recovered, with 406.5 million heads in stock at the end of the year, an increase of 31% over the end of the previous year.

The bottom line guarantees have been strengthened, and the national per capita net income from transfers throughout the year increased by 8.7% in nominal terms over the previous year.

  Ensure the safety of food and energy, and ensure the stability of the industrial chain and supply chain in a timely and effective manner.

Food production reached a new high.

The annual grain output was 669.49 million tons, an increase of 0.9% over the previous year, and remained above 1.3 trillion catties for six consecutive years.

Energy supply remains stable.

The output of raw coal, crude oil and natural gas increased by 1.4%, 1.6% and 9.8% respectively over the previous year.

The industrial supply chain is basically stable.

The national industrial capacity utilization rate for the whole year was 74.5%, of which the first, second, third and fourth quarters were 67.3%, 74.4%, 76.7%, and 78.0% respectively.

  Effective results have been achieved in ensuring market players and ensuring basic operations.

The vitality of market entities is continuously stimulated.

There were 25.02 million newly registered market entities throughout the year, and an average of 22,000 newly registered enterprises per day. At the end of the year, the total number of market entities reached 140 million.

Enterprise benefits recover quickly.

The annual profits of industrial enterprises above designated size reached 6451.6 billion yuan, an increase of 4.1% over the previous year.

Innovatively set up a direct mechanism for fiscal funds to ensure that funds go directly to the grass-roots level of cities and counties, and directly benefit enterprises and people. A total of 1.7 trillion yuan was issued throughout the year.

3. The three major battles have made decisive achievements, and the development background has become brighter

  In the past year, the Party Central Committee and the State Council have firmly grasped the major strategic tasks of fighting the three tough battles, overcoming the adverse effects of the epidemic, united and led the people across the country to work hard, focus on key points, make up for shortcomings, strengths and weaknesses, and strengthen We have made great efforts to eliminate poverty, continue to promote pollution prevention and control, actively prevent and resolve major risks, conquer the most difficult fortresses, gnaw down the hardest bones, win the battle against poverty, and achieve great historical achievements in building a well-off society in an all-round way.

  The results of poverty alleviation have attracted worldwide attention.

According to the current rural poverty standard, 5.51 million rural poor people have all been lifted out of poverty.

The annual per capita disposable income of rural residents in poverty-stricken areas was 12,588 yuan, an actual increase of 5.6%, and the growth rate was 3.5 and 1.8 percentage points faster than that of national residents and national rural residents, respectively.

According to the results of the national poverty alleviation census, the registered households in 22 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in the central and western regions have no worries about food and clothing, compulsory education, basic medical care, housing safety, and drinking water safety.

  Pollution prevention and control have achieved remarkable results.

Among the 337 prefecture-level and above cities monitored, 59.9% of the cities had air quality up to the standard for the whole year, an increase of 13.3 percentage points from the previous year.

The annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in cities that did not meet the standard was 37 micrograms/m3, a decrease of 7.5% over the previous year.

Among the national surface water assessment sections, 83.4% of the sections with good water quality (Class I to III) throughout the year were 83.4%, an increase of 8.5 percentage points from the previous year; the ratio of sections inferior to Class V was 0.6%, a decrease of 2.8 percentage points.

  Steady progress was made in preventing and resolving major risks.

Firmly establish a bottom-line thinking, and work hard to resolve hidden debt risks of local governments.

At the end of the year, the balance of local government debts nationwide was 256615 billion yuan, which was controlled within the limit approved by the National People's Congress.

Keep the macro leverage ratio basically stable and replenish bank capital through multiple channels.

At the end of the year, the capital adequacy ratio of commercial banks was 14.7%.

4. Reform and innovation continue to deepen, and development potential is effectively stimulated

  In the past year, in the face of the complex situation of external restrictions and suppression and some key core technologies being controlled by others, we insisted on using reforms and innovations to build social consensus, strengthen endogenous motivation, solve development problems, and continue to deepen the reform of decentralization, management and service, and reforms in key areas. Accelerate the improvement of the technological innovation system with enterprises as the main body, the market vitality has been significantly enhanced, and the first driving force for innovation and development has been deeply rooted in the hearts of the people.

  Investment in innovation has increased significantly.

The annual research and experimental development expenditures totaled 2,442.6 billion yuan, an increase of 10.3% over the previous year, and its ratio to GDP was 2.40%, an increase of 0.16 percentage points over the previous year. Fundamental research funding increased by 12.6% over the previous year, continuing Maintain rapid growth.

The World Intellectual Property Organization report shows that my country will continue to rank 14th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, and is the only middle-income economy among the top 30.

  The technological strength has been significantly enhanced.

In the whole year, 3.639 million patents were granted nationwide, an increase of 40.4% over the previous year.

At the end of the year, the number of invention patents per 10,000 people is expected to reach 15.8, an increase of 2.5 over the end of the previous year.

Major scientific and technological achievements continue to emerge.

"Chang'e 4" landed on the back of the moon for the first time, "Chang'e 5" completed lunar surface sampling and returned, "Tianwen 1" probe was successfully launched, "Struggle" completed 10,000-meter manned deep dive, Beidou Navigation Global Network , The quantum computing prototype system "Nine Chapters" was successfully developed, and the 500-meter spherical radio telescope was officially opened for operation.

  New momentum grows against the trend.

The annual growth rate of the value added of the high-tech manufacturing industry above designated size was 4.3 percentage points faster than that of all industries above designated size. The growth rate of the operating income of high-tech service enterprises above designated size was 9.0 percentage points faster than that of all service industry enterprises above designated size. Investment in high-tech industries increased by 9.0 percentage points. The speed is 7.9% faster than the total investment.

The proportion of online retail sales of physical goods continued to increase.

The online retail sales of physical goods in the whole year was 975.9 billion yuan, an increase of 14.8% over the previous year; it accounted for 24.9% of the total retail sales of consumer goods, a substantial increase of 4.0% over the previous year.

5. Full opening up is fast and steady, and the level of opening up continues to improve

  In the past year, trade protectionism and unilateralism have prevailed, and economic globalization has encountered major challenges.

In the face of major international changes, China’s door to the outside world has not only not been closed, it has opened wider and wider.

China has taken the initiative to strengthen international cooperation in the fight against the epidemic, actively participates in economic globalization, cultivates new opportunities in the crisis, and opens new opportunities in the changing situation. This not only stabilizes the basic market for foreign trade and foreign investment, but also promotes the formation of a new pattern of all-round high-level opening up. Improve the quality and efficiency of foreign economic and trade development.

  The status of a major trading country has been consolidated.

The scale of trade in goods reached a new high.

The total value of imports and exports of goods for the year was 32155.7 billion yuan, an increase of 1.9% over the previous year, of which exports increased by 4.0%.

The total value of imports, exports and exports both hit record highs, and continued to rank first in global trade in goods.

The proportion of general trade continued to increase.

General trade import and export accounted for 59.9% of the total import and export of goods, an increase of 0.9% over the previous year.

The trade pattern has become more diversified. ASEAN has risen to become my country's largest trading partner in goods, and its share of imports and exports to ASEAN has reached 14.7%, an increase of 0.7% over the previous year.

Contribute Chinese forces to international cooperation in epidemic prevention and control.

From March to the end of 2020, 224.2 billion masks, 2.31 billion protective suits, and 1.08 billion new crown virus test kits were exported.

The quality of service trade is steadily improved.

The import and export of knowledge-intensive services accounted for 44.5% of the total import and export of services throughout the year, an increase of 9.9% over the previous year.

  The use of foreign capital is outstanding.

Taking the lead in controlling the epidemic and promptly resuming work and production, coupled with strong industrial supporting capabilities and continuously optimized business environment, foreign direct investment has accelerated into my country, and the scale of foreign capital utilization has grown against the trend.

The amount of foreign direct investment actually used throughout the year was 1 trillion yuan, an increase of 6.2% over the previous year, of which the actual use of foreign capital in high-tech industries increased by 11.4%, and the amount of foreign capital used continued to increase.

The "Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement" was successfully signed, the China-EU investment agreement was reached as scheduled, and the construction of a high-standard free trade network has achieved remarkable results.

At present, my country has signed 19 free trade agreements with 26 economies.

  The joint construction of the "Belt and Road" has achieved remarkable results.

The total value of imports and exports to countries along the “Belt and Road” was 9,369.6 billion yuan, an increase of 1.0% over the previous year; non-financial direct investment in countries along the “Belt and Road” was USD 17.8 billion, an increase of 18.3%.

As of the end of January this year, a total of 205 cooperation documents have been signed with 140 countries and 31 international organizations to jointly build the “Belt and Road”.

6. The protection of people's livelihood has been strengthened, and people's living standards have been steadily improved

  In the past year, the new crown pneumonia epidemic has posed a serious threat to people's lives and health, and residents' lives and work order have suffered a great impact.

The party and government have always adhered to the people-centered development concept, safeguarding and improving people's livelihood in development, implementing the employment priority strategy, increasing transfer payments, strengthening social security, ensuring the basic livelihood of residents, and improving people's livelihood and welfare.

  Residents' income and the economy have grown simultaneously.

The national per capita disposable income for the whole year was 32,189 yuan, an increase of 4.7% over the previous year. After deducting price factors, the actual increase was 2.1%, faster than the growth rate of per capita GDP.

The income of rural residents increased rapidly.

The annual per capita disposable income of rural residents increased by 3.8% in real terms over the previous year, which was 2.6% faster than that in urban areas.

  The social security system has been continuously improved.

The coverage of social insurance was further expanded.

At the end of the year, the number of people participating in basic pension insurance for urban employees, basic pension insurance for urban and rural residents, basic medical insurance, and unemployment insurance increased by 21.5 million, 9.78 million, 6.93 million, and 11.47 million respectively over the end of the previous year.

The number of people participating in basic pension insurance nationwide is nearly 1 billion, and the basic medical insurance participation rate has stabilized at more than 95%.

Social assistance continued to increase.

In the whole year, 13.41 million people were temporarily rescued, 89 million people were funded to participate in basic medical insurance, and 73 million people were directly rescued. The number of rescuers increased significantly over the previous year.

The transformation of shanty towns is progressing steadily, and the task of finishing the renovation of dilapidated houses in rural areas has been completed.

  All-round progress in social undertakings.

Education and culture are flourishing.

The consolidation rate of nine-year compulsory education was 95.2%, an increase of 0.4% over the previous year; the gross enrollment rate of high school was 91.2%, an increase of 1.7%.

The operating income of cultural and related industrial enterprises above designated size nationwide was 9851.4 billion yuan.

The medical and health forces have been significantly enhanced.

At the end of the year, there were 1.023 million medical and health institutions nationwide, with 10.66 million health technicians, an increase of 510,000 over the end of the previous year.

As of the end of the year, a total of 8,177 medical and health institutions across the country provided new coronavirus nucleic acid testing services, with a total testing capacity of 11.53 million copies per day.

The concept of national fitness is deeply rooted in the hearts of the people, sports fitness facilities have been continuously improved, and mass sports have developed vigorously.

At the end of the year, there were 3.713 million sports venues nationwide, an increase of 169,000 from the end of the previous year.

In the whole year, 37.2% of the population of 7 years old and above regularly participated in physical exercises.

  2020 is the final year of the "13th Five-Year Plan" and a crucial year for achieving the first centenary goal.

After five years of hard work and continuous struggle, the main economic and social development goals set out in the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan" have been better achieved.

The total economic volume has exceeded 100 trillion yuan, and the per capita GDP has exceeded 10,000 US dollars for two consecutive years.

During the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan" period, the average annual nominal increase in my country's GDP reached 6.5 trillion yuan, 1.0 trillion yuan more than that during the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period.

Residents' income and economic growth are basically synchronized, and the rural poor are all lifted out of poverty under the current standards.

During the 13th Five-Year Plan period, the nation’s per capita disposable income rose by an average of 2045 yuan in nominal terms, an increase of 156 yuan over the 12th Five-Year Plan period; 55.75 million rural poor people were lifted out of poverty, and 11.15 million people were reduced in poverty every year.

Major development strategies have been implemented steadily, major reform and opening-up measures have been accelerated, major engineering projects have been solidly constructed, major progress has been made in the construction of ecological civilization, and great historic achievements have been made in building a well-off society in all respects.

This is the result of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core taking the overall situation and steering the rudder. It is the result of the full display and effective use of the advantages of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics. It is the result of the hard work and hard work of the people of all ethnic groups across the country. It's not easy, but it's hard to succeed, and it needs to be cherished.

  2021 is the beginning year of the "14th Five-Year Plan" and the beginning of a new journey for the second century of struggle.

Based on the new development stage, implementing the new development concept, and building a new development pattern, we must take the first step and strive to achieve higher quality, more efficient, fairer, more sustainable and safer development.

At the same time, we must also be soberly aware that the current external environment for my country’s development is still complex and severe, with many unstable and uncertain factors; the problem of inadequate and unbalanced domestic development is still prominent, the aging of the population is increasing, and the level of basic public services needs to be improved. , The impact of the new crown pneumonia epidemic has not been completely eliminated.

We must unite more closely around the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, hold high the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, thoroughly implement the spirit of the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee and the Central Economic Work Conference, enhance the awareness of opportunities and risks, and accurately recognize changes. , To respond scientifically and actively seek change, adhere to the main line of deepening supply-side structural reforms, adhere to the strategic basis of expanding domestic demand, focus on cultivating a strong domestic market, continue to strengthen scientific strategic support, accelerate the creation of a higher level of opening up, and actively unblock the people The economic cycle will ensure that the "14th Five-Year Plan" has a good start and a good start, and will present more outstanding achievements to the centennial of the party.