The fertile black land, the abundant Songjiang water, and the endless corn jointing grow, paint the most beautiful picture of this season.
Coordinates: Jilin. This is one of the "Three Golden Corn Belts in the World", which is as famous as the United States and Ukraine. Nearly 1 ear of corn is produced in the country with 8 ears of corn.
On July 22, General Secretary Xi Jinping, who was inspecting in Jilin, came to the core demonstration area of the national standard production base of green food raw materials (corn) in Lishu County, Siping City. He walked into the corn field to observe the cultivation of the black soil layer and the growth of corn. .
"With grain in hand, don't panic in my heart" is the truth. However, behind the high yield of black soil, it is the problem of long-term overdraft that the black soil layer becomes thinner and the soil organic matter decreases.
How to revitalize the black earth?
Jilin insists on seeking benefits from science and technology, pressing the "fast forward button" in order to achieve stable and high yields of grain and accelerate the pace of agricultural modernization.
The "Pear Tree Model" worthy of summary and promotion
"You are exploring and implementing corn stalks to cover the fields, which can not only increase soil organic matter, but also prevent wind and water erosion and protect moisture. This model is worthy of summary and promotion." The model mentioned by General Secretary Xi Jinping is "Pear Tree". mode".
In the process of corn planting, all straws are returned to the field and covered on the ground, reducing the number of tillages to a minimum. From loose soil to no-tillage sowing, from fertilization to pest control, field production links are all mechanized.
This technical system developed and established by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China Agricultural University and other units since 2007, has formed two technical models of corn stalk full mulching no-till cultivation technology and corn stalk strip rotary tillage technology. From the initial 200 acres to about 2.1 million acres in 2020.
Farmers have the most say in the "pear tree model" created to protect the black soil.
"Now this kind of straw-branched cornfields used to make the whole village laugh. But after years of exploration, it has proved that this kind of farming model is very feasible." Lishu County, Lishu Town Hongwang Agricultural Machinery Farmers Professional Cooperative Leader Zhang Wendi said.
Returning straw to the fields, covering the black soil with "quilts", soil and water conservation, soil fertility, cost savings of 1,000-1400 yuan per hectare, corn yield can increase about 10%. The national standard production base for green food raw materials (corn) of one million acres is expected to produce 1.5 billion jin of corn this year, and farmers’ income will increase by more than 25 million yuan.
The blessing of science and technology has allowed the black land to reproduce fruitful results
The general secretary emphasized that "effective measures must be taken to protect the black land, the panda in the cultivated land."
The modernization of agriculture is a major concern for him.
The 52-year-old chairman of the Lu Wei Agricultural Machinery Farmers Cooperative in Balimiao Village, Lishu County, has long realized the importance of large-scale operations. He invested more than RMB 4.5 million to purchase agricultural machinery for the cooperative.
Lu Wei's advanced awareness is largely due to the strong atmosphere of the province's agricultural mechanization promotion.
According to incomplete statistics, since the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan", the Jilin Provincial Department of Science and Technology has invested more than 60 million yuan in scientific research funds and organized the implementation of nearly 100 related agricultural machinery and equipment scientific research projects; won 1 second prize of National Science and Technology Progress Award and provincial and ministerial award 33 Items, 108 authorized invention patents and 107 utility model patents were obtained.
Back to corn planting.
Since 2007, researcher Zhang Xudong from the Shenyang Institute of Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences has led the establishment of a no-tillage straw mulching technology research base in Gaojia Village, Lishu County.
Since 2008, the staff of the Lishu County Agricultural Technology Extension Station and the Agricultural Machinery Extension Station, together with Dr. Guan Yixin, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, have successfully developed China’s first corn no-tillage planter prototype. Widely used in production areas.
The "National Modern Corn Standardization Regional Service and Extension Platform" hosted by Researcher Li Gang from the Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences has also boosted the standardized production of green corn.
With the blessing of science and technology, the black soil has reproduced fruitful results.
Develop agricultural modernization, Jilin plays a good "first move"
"You have embarked on a development path suitable for your own cooperatives, improved the level of agricultural mechanization, and gave full play to your unique land advantages. The level of agricultural science and technology, farmers' scientific and technological quality, and agricultural production efficiency have all been greatly improved, which is very meaningful." Xi Jinping said Lu Wei Agricultural Machinery Farmers Professional Cooperative pointed out.
And this road to agricultural modernization is also a way for the Jilin Provincial Party Committee and Provincial Government to make up for shortcomings in the "three rural" areas and maintain national food security.
On June 22, the Jilin Provincial Party Committee held the Seventh Plenary Session of the Eleventh Session, emphasizing the speeding up of modern agriculture construction and prescribing a "prescription", that is, the black land protection and utilization project, the rural three-industry integration development project, and the characteristic industries must be fully implemented. Expansion projects, etc.
By the end of the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, Jilin strives to reach a new level of 80 billion jin in total grain output, implements 40 million mu of conservation tillage technology, and achieves over 90% of the comprehensive mechanization of crop cultivation and harvesting.
Modern agricultural technology, which has been continuously applied in practice, is becoming a booster for the increase in food production. In Fuzi Village, Qian'an County, agricultural experts from the Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences have been visiting for a long time, using water and fertilizer integration technology to promote farmers' increase in production and income.
In addition, the construction of a modern agricultural production system is also taking new steps in Jilin Province, and the quality of development is further improved. Take Changchun City as an example. In 2019, 617,000 mu of high-standard farmland was built in the city, and 4.018 million mu of corn conservation cultivation was implemented, and the comprehensive agricultural mechanization level reached 90%.
"Our experience is that we still need to get output from science and technology." Lu Wei said that in the future, the cooperative will continue to innovate the cooperation mechanism, give full play to the demonstration and lead role, and contribute to the implementation of the comprehensive construction of a well-off society and the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy.
Wang Yingxia Science and Technology Daily reporter Yang Lun