With the approval of the State Council, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs officially announced the "National Catalog of Animal Genetic Resources" (hereinafter referred to as the "Catalogue"), which clarified the range of livestock and poultry species for the first time. The reporter interviewed the person in charge of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs on the background, main contents and implementation of the "Catalogue".
Q: It is understood that this is the first time that China has released a catalog of genetic resources for livestock and poultry. What is the background and significance of the formulation of the Catalog?
Answer: "Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on Comprehensively Prohibiting the Trading of Illegal Wild Animals, Eliminating the Abuse of Wild Animal Eating and Safeguarding the Life and Health of the People" (hereinafter referred to as the "Decision") and the "Livestock Law of the People's Republic of China" (Hereinafter referred to as the "Livestock Law") stipulates that the animal husbandry and veterinary administrative department of the State Council is responsible for organizing the survey of livestock and poultry genetic resources and publishing the catalogue of livestock and poultry genetic resources approved by the State Council. Since the 1980s, our ministry has carried out two nationwide surveys of livestock and poultry genetic resources, basically clarifying the resource base, and laid a good foundation for the formulation of the Catalogue. Recently, the National People ’s Congress Standing Committee ’s “Decision” and the “Livestock Law” have been implemented. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has conducted intensive research and accelerated the formulation of the “Catalogue”. It has successively solicited 36 central and state organs, 31 provincial-level people ’s governments and The opinions of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps have repeatedly listened to the opinions of experts and scholars in scientific research institutes, colleges and universities, and the industry, and solicited opinions from the public. They have been continuously revised and improved, and are officially announced today.
The formulation and implementation of the "Catalogue" will effectively promote the sustainable and healthy development of China's animal husbandry and ensure the effective supply and quality safety of animal products. China's livestock and poultry genetic resources are rich. The domestication and selective breeding of livestock and poultry for a long time have effectively supported the development of animal husbandry in China. Over the past 40 years of reform and opening up, the development of animal husbandry has entered a fast lane, with a total output value of nearly 3 trillion yuan, an increase of 142.5 times; the total output of meat and eggs ranks first in the world, accounting for 26% and 40% of the global total output, respectively. Livestock and poultry breeding industry has become a strategic support for the development of modern animal husbandry in China.
The "Catalog" is an important supporting document of the "Decision" and the "Livestock Law" of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, which clarifies which animals belong to livestock and poultry, and which activities such as the protection and utilization of genetic resources of livestock and poultry, breeding, breeding, management, transportation and other activities are applicable to " The management of the Animal Husbandry Law not only fully considers the current actual demand for animal husbandry production, but also scientifically takes into account the future development trend of the safe consumption of animal products. The formulation and implementation of the "Catalogue" is of great significance for the implementation of the decision-making and deployment of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, the implementation of the "Decision" and the "Livestock Law" of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, and the protection of the people's health and safety; Animal husbandry supervision and management work, correctly handle the relationship between resource protection and utilization and industrial development, and promote the healthy development of livestock and poultry breeding industry and farmers and herdsmen have a practical significance.
Question : We see that there are many types of livestock and poultry in the "Catalogue", including common livestock and poultry species such as pigs, cows and chickens, as well as special livestock and poultry such as sika deer and ostrich. How is the range of livestock and poultry determined ?
A: In the process of formulating the Catalogue, we will focus on four principles: First, adhere to science. Livestock and poultry are domestic animals in the range of mammals and birds. The livestock and poultry listed in the Catalogue must be kept artificially for a long period of time and have stability. the artificial selection economic traits Second, outstanding safety, give priority to food safety, Gonggongweisheng security, ecological security Third, respect the heavy national habits, taking into account the multi-ethnic and traditional production Shenghuoziliao cultural factors Fourth, international standards, international practices, etc. .
According to the above principles, the Catalogue includes 33 kinds of livestock and poultry, including 17 kinds of traditional livestock and poultry and 16 kinds of special livestock and poultry. These livestock and poultry are domestic animals that have been domesticated and selected by humans for a long time. They have a certain group size and are mainly used in agricultural production. The population can be propagated under artificial breeding conditions to provide humans with meat, eggs, milk and fur , Fiber and other products, or to meet the needs of service, sports, etc.
Traditional livestock and poultry are the main components of livestock production in China. Among them, the domestication of pigs, cows, sheep, horses, donkeys, chickens, etc. has exceeded tens of thousands of years, and the domestication of camels, rabbits, ducks, geese, pigeons, quails, etc. has also been more than a thousand years old. Special livestock and poultry are an important supplement to animal husbandry production. Some of them are imported species. Although the breeding time is not long in China, they have at least a thousand years of domestication history abroad. The population is stable and the production is safe, such as alpaca and turkey. , Ostrich, etc .; some are our own regional specialty species, with a long breeding history, and have formed a relatively complete industrial system, such as sika deer, red deer, reindeer, etc .; and some are non-edible special-purpose species, mainly used for fur processing and For product export, there are already mature domestic breeds such as mink, silver fox, arctic fox, raccoon and other fur animals.
Question: We know that the "Catalogue" is a normative document of the nature of the administrative regulations approved by the State Council. There are still many specific tasks to be done during the implementation process. What measures will the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs take to implement it?
Answer: The formulation of the "Catalogue" is an important measure to implement the "Decision" and the "Livestock Law" of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. The implementation of the "Catalogue" is the legal responsibility of governments at all levels and all relevant departments. As the animal husbandry and veterinary administrative department, we must do the following work.
The first is to publish the list of varieties supporting the "Catalogue". Recently, the National Animal and Poultry Genetic Resources Committee will publish the National Animal and Poultry Genetic Resources Variety List (hereinafter referred to as the "List") supporting the "Catalogue", which covers more than 800 places of 33 species of livestock and poultry that have passed the national identification and approval Varieties, cultivated varieties, imported varieties and supporting lines. The "List" will be published on the official website of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs to facilitate farmers, managers and the public to inquire, and enhance the pertinence, standardization and operability of the implementation of the "List".
The second is to strengthen the protection and utilization of livestock genetic resources. During the implementation of the "Catalogue", it is necessary to implement the "Opinions of the General Office of the State Council on Strengthening the Protection and Utilization of Agricultural Germplasm Resources", strengthen the implementation of the responsibilities of the competent departments, local governments, and protection units, and improve the live conservation of seed conservation farms The protection system combined with the preservation of genetic material in the gene bank; deep excavation of excellent germplasm and excellent genes of livestock and poultry, accelerating the cultivation of new breeds of livestock and poultry with international competitiveness; strengthening international cooperation and exchanges, regulating the management of entry and exit of livestock and poultry genetic resources; The industrial development of livestock genetic resources with local characteristics will enhance the protection and utilization of livestock genetic resources.
The third is to strengthen the supervision of livestock and poultry breeding and animal husbandry. Guide the main body of livestock and poultry breeding to carry out standardized breeding. Strengthen the management of breeding livestock and poultry production and operation licenses, and improve the systems for breeding and breeding of livestock and poultry, breeding management, product processing, and epidemic prevention and control. Strict animal health law enforcement supervision and effective prevention and control of the occurrence and spread of major animal diseases to ensure the quality of animal products and biological safety. Strengthen the management of special livestock and poultry farming, improve the management system, standardize technical requirements, and constantly improve the level of special livestock and poultry farming. Strengthen the management of fur animals such as mink, silver fox, arctic fox, raccoon dog, etc., and strictly prohibit the management of carcasses for the purpose of eating.
The fourth is to strengthen policy interpretation and publicity guidance. Make overall plans for the publicity and interpretation, special training and implementation of the "Catalogue" and supporting "Catalogue". Focus on publicity and introduction of the development of China's animal husbandry industry, and increase public understanding of the livestock and poultry industry; carry out technology popularization and education of laws and regulations on livestock and poultry health breeding, epidemic prevention and control, improve the breeding management level of farmers, and promote the implementation of biosecurity measures .
Question: How can I guide the healthy development of the livestock and poultry industry after the publication of the "Catalogue"?
Answer: The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has always attached great importance to the healthy development of the livestock and poultry industry. In recent years, we have optimized supply, strengthened safety, and maintained ecology, accelerated the transformation of the development of animal husbandry, and promoted the transformation and upgrading of animal husbandry. In the next step, we will guide livestock farming households to standardize their breeding operations within the scope of the "Catalogue". Promote large-scale standard farming of livestock and poultry, formulate and implement standardized feeding management regulations, build a batch of standardized large-scale farms, summarize a batch of typical models that can be replicated and promote, give play to the role of grassroots animal husbandry and veterinary technology promotion agencies and industry associations, and improve farm households Biological safety protection and breeding management level. Strengthen the prevention and control of major animal epidemics of livestock and poultry, strengthen the construction of animal epidemic prevention systems, implement the main responsibilities of animal epidemic prevention, enhance animal epidemic prevention conditions, perform compulsory immunization, quarantine declaration of origin, and handle epidemic outbreaks according to law, and encourage and support the creation of epidemic-free communities. Improve regional prevention and control capabilities. Continue to promote the utilization of livestock and poultry manure resources , increase policy support for the utilization of livestock and poultry manure resources, vigorously promote the development of integrated breeding and breeding, improve the relevant standard system, and cultivate specialized service providers for livestock and poultry manure treatment and utilization.
Q: Dogs are familiar domestic animals. Why are they not listed in the "Catalogue" this time?
Answer: During the period when the "Catalogue" was publicly solicited for comments, most of the opinions on "whether or not dogs are included in the" Catalogue "were in favor of not including dogs in the" Catalogue ". Dogs have a long history of domestication. In the past, they were mainly used in nursing homes and hunting and grazing. Now dogs have more diverse uses, including pet companionship, search and rescue police, and escort guidance. They have a closer relationship with humans. There are no dogs in livestock and poultry counted by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, and internationally, it is generally not managed according to livestock and poultry. For example, the livestock and poultry listed in the Korean "Livestock Law" do not include dogs. It should also be noted that with the progress of the times, people's civilization ideas and eating habits are constantly changing, and some traditional customs about dogs will also change. The "Catalogue" is a positive list. The listed livestock and poultry are managed in accordance with the "Livestock Law". Although the dog is not included in the "Catalogue", it is not a wild animal and does not mean that it cannot be kept. Regarding the management of dogs, relevant departments and localities already have some experience and practices, and have introduced regulations such as restraint, registration, and compulsory immunization. In the future, all localities can further improve relevant systems and achieve standardized management on the basis of listening to the opinions of all parties based on local reality.
Question : What is the difference between the livestock and poultry in the "Catalogue" and the wild animals we see in the wild ? Some domesticated wild animals are not listed in the "Catalogue", what specific considerations are there ?
Answer: The livestock and poultry listed in the "Catalogue" have clear legal boundaries and strict scientific boundaries. As we all know, domestic animals and poultry are domesticated from wild animals. Compared with wild animals, their genetic structure and biological characteristics usually have essential changes in the following aspects: first, to overcome wildness, suitable for group breeding, and second, to overcome seasons The habit of sexual estrus can be reproduced all year round. Three is that the genetic performance is stable and has a certain population size. It can reproduce independently without relying on the wild population. The fourth is that there are mature varieties, and the production performance and economic performance are significantly improved.
There are more than 5,400 mammals in nature and more than 9,800 avians, most of which are wild animals. In the process of soliciting opinions on the "Catalogue", some localities and farmers suggested that some wild animals under maintenance should be included in the "Catalogue". Because these wild animals are kept, some artificial breeding time is not long, and some seed sources need to be collected from the wild It is difficult to distinguish it from wild populations, some public health risks are unclear, some are not within the scope of mammals and birds, and they do not have the standards and conditions for livestock and poultry, and should not be included in the "Catalogue". Management of relevant regulations.
Question: In the process of soliciting opinions, there are some suggestions to include the black frog, spiny-breasted frog, forest frog, tiger frog and other frogs in the "catalogue". What are the considerations for the next step of frog management?
Answer: Frogs are amphibians, which do not belong to the category of livestock and poultry, and cannot be listed in the "Catalogue". In the process of soliciting opinions in the "Catalogue", various regions reported that some frogs had cross-management issues, and it was required to clarify the management division of frogs. To this end, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and the State Forestry and Grassland Bureau have organized expert research and demonstrations and jointly issued the "Notice on Further Regulating the Protection and Management of Frogs", which clarifies the black spotted frog, spiny breast frog, spiny-bellied frog, Chinese forest frog Northeast forest frogs) and Heilongjiang forest frogs are managed by aquatic animals according to the agricultural and rural (fishery) departments. In the next step, the two departments will adjust the relevant lists in accordance with the above-mentioned divisions in time, and instruct local authorities to promote the adjustment of the local key protected wildlife lists. Regarding tiger frogs, we will work with the Forest and Grass Bureau based on the opinions of experts to make clear when the national list of key protected wild animals is adjusted. What needs to be emphasized here is that clarifying the management division of some frogs will help to further strengthen the protection of frog resources. The notices of the two departments clearly stipulate that, except for special needs such as scientific research and population regulation, the fishing of wild frog-related resources is prohibited. Engaged in artificial aquaculture production activities must be carried out in strict accordance with the relevant laws and regulations of the Fisheries Law.
Question : It is understood that during the consultation process of the "Catalogue", some farmers raised the hope of giving reasonable economic compensation to wild animals and other aftercare issues. How can the agricultural and rural departments cooperate to do related work?
Answer: For the after-treatment of wild animals, the State Forestry Administration has issued a notice to implement the "Decision" and "Notice on the Safe and Effective Follow-up Work of Fasting Wild Animals". "Animal Technology Guide" has made arrangements for handling wild animals, compensating farmers, changing production and changing industries, and various localities have successively issued relevant policies. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs also attaches great importance to the requirements of the agricultural and rural departments at all levels under the unified leadership of the local party committee and government, and actively cooperate with the forest and grass and other departments to do a good job in the treatment of wild animals and the adjustment of affected farmers, and change production and management activities.
Question : Will the Catalogue be adjusted during implementation?
Answer: This "catalogue" is not static and can be adjusted. In the development and production of animal husbandry, if it is indeed necessary to be included in the "Catalogue", the Ministry will adjust the "Catalogue" in accordance with the legal procedures according to the provisions of the "Animal Husbandry Law", according to the actual development, and after careful scientific evaluation. .